Law and punishment
the law code of the ancient Romans, which forms the basis of civil law in many countries today.
Roman life as crime and punishment, land and property ownership, commerce, the maritime and agricultural industries, citizenship, sexuality and prostitution, slavery and manumission, local and state politics, liability and damage to property, and the preservation of the peace. Law was established through a variety of means, for example, via statutes, magisterial decisions, emperor's edicts, senatorial decrees, assembly votes, plebiscites and the deliberations of expert legal counsel and so became multi-faceted and flexible enough to deal with the changing circumstances of the Roman world, from republican to imperial politics, local to national trade, and state to inter-state politics.
In Ancient Rome the slaves had no rights at all. The were thought of, treated like, merchandise. However, slaves did cost money to buy so many of the punishments did not inflict lasting damage. The lash was the most common punishment. When slaves were beaten, they were suspended with a weight tied to their feet, that they might not move them. Another punishment was to be branded in the forehead. An alternative punishment included the slave being forced to carry a piece of wood round their necks wherever they went. This was called furca; and whichever slave had been subjected to the punishment was ever afterwards called furcifer. Slaves were also, by way of punishment, often confined in a work-house, or house of correction, where they were obliged to turn a mill for grinding corn. When punished for any capital offence, they were commonly crucified; but this was eventually prohibited under the rule of the Emperor Constantine.