Avi Noble and Beth Wachtel


A GMO is an organism whose genome has been altered by the techniques of genetic engineering so that its DNA contains one or more genes not normally found there.


-Enviropig is the trademark for a genetically modified line of Yorkshire pigs, with the capability to digest plant phosphorus more efficiently than conventional unmodified pigs, that was developed at the University of Guelph by Dr. Cecila W. Forsberg.

-Combined two genes to make a new one. They combined one gene from bacteria that makes phytase with another gene from a mouse that controls the production of proteins in the salivary glands.

- The purpose of this change is less phosphorus in the pigs manure which in return means less potential phosphorus in fresh water pond,streams, and rivers causing less fish death.

Process for Making the Enviropig

- The Enviropig was created by a micro-injection ex-vivo into a fetertalized egg that contained a escherichia coli phytase gene and a segment of murnie parotid secretory protein gene.

- Used the process of knock-in to add the gene in the organism to create a transgenic organism
- The source of the transferred gene was a fertilized egg, which was delivered by a micro-injection.

- They knew the transfer was successful when they checked for phytase enzyme activity in the saliva and for the presence of the transgene.

- It took eight generations of inbreeding to make sure that this gene was present in all offspring. The gene was passed in Mendelian style.

Current Status

- Funding for this process has ended because people weren't ready for this change.

- It was successful in serving it's purpose. While the research was being conducted these pigs had 70.7% less phosphorus in the manure and could digest phosphorus easier and quicker.

Pros Vs. Cons

-Con: They let manure sit for longer which builds up the concentration of other daminging chemicals.

-Pro: Cleaner water.

-Con: contaminated the food system.

Problem with GMO

- Health and safety issues because of the shortage of food.

- Crop uniformity, which the biotech firms are promoting, will reduce genetic diversity making them more vulnerable to disease and pests. This furthers the need for pesticides. (Offer. Created by the same companies creating and promoting genetically engineered crops.

- GE Food is an expensive technology that the farmers of the developing nations would not be able to afford easily.