Body Systems

By: Elizabeth, Katrina, Katie, Naya and Jun

Nervous System

Main Parts-


  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Nerves
  • Special Sense Organs
The nervous system is by far one of the most complicated systems in the entire body. It is capable of producing electrical messages to send to the rest of the body. These messages can be transmitted in a matter of milliseconds. The nervous system interprets stimuli and monitors internal and external environments by using receptors.The nervous system also responds to the stimuli by sending electrical messages to other nerves, muscles, or glands.


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Lymphatic System

Main Parts-

  • Nose
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
The lymphatic system is in charge of returning blood supply fluid and proteins that have moved out of the blood vessels. The lymphatic system also transports lipids from the small intestine to the bloodstream. The final job the lymphatic system is responsible for is it houses lymphocytes that defend the body against invasion by microbes, foreign cells, toxins, and cancer cells. It is a defender against the body!

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The Endocrine System

The endocrine system contains glands that release horomones that influence most of the cells, organs, and fuctions in our body. The endocrine fuction processes that usually happen slowly in the body. The glands and the hormones released are what make up the endocrine system.


Hormone influences:

  • stress
  • infection
  • changes in a balance of fluid and minerals in blood


Parts of the Endocrine System

1. The Hypothalamus Gland

  • Delivers information that is sensed by the brain to the pituitary.

2. The Pituitary Gland

  • Most important because it makes horomones that control several other endocrine glands.

3. The Thyroid glands

  • Produces thyroxine and triodothyroneine, which are horomones that control the rate of which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy.

4. The Parathyroids

  • Four small glands are attached to the thyroid that regulate the level of calcium in blood.

5. The Adrenal Glands

  • There is 1 in each kidney
  • Two Parts; Adrenal Cortex and Adrenal Medula
  • Adrenal Cortex is the outer part that make corticosteroids which regulate salt and water balance
  • Adrenal Medula is the inner part that makes catecholamines which increases blood pressure and heart rate when stress occurs.

6. The Pineal Gland

  • Secretes melatonin, which helps regulates the wake/sleep cycle

7. The Pancreas Gland

  • Produces insulin an glucagon horomones that help maintain levels of glucose in the blood.

8. The Gonad Glands

  • The sex horomones
  • Testes in males produce testosterone. Ovaries in females produce estrogen.


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The Endocrine System

The Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system is composed of the Heart.


Fuctions of the Cardiovascular System:


  • Supplies cells with nutrients and oxygen
  • Removes waste products from cells and delivers them for removal from the body.
  • Maintains homeostasis
  • Helps defend against disease
  • Mends damaged vessels


INTRO TO THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.wmv

Skeletal System

The skeletal system consists of all the bones and tissies such as tendons, ligaments, and cartilage that connects them.

How does it help us?

-The main job is to support our body. Without bone's support, you would couldn't support your body at all. The skeletal system protects iternal organs and body tissue.

-The cranium protects the brain and eyes, ribs protect the the heart and lungs, and the vertebrae protects the spinal chord.

-Bones provide structure for muscles to attatch for movement. Tendons are inelastic and tough bands that hold and attatch muscles to the bone.

- It is also the blood cell information, and mineral storage.

Facts

1.Each bone is an organ.

2. There are over 200 bones

3. Bones are about 22 pounds out of a 125 pound person

4. Joints and cartilage complete the skeletal system


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Digestive System

Digestive Tract

-Digestive Sytem is made up of the Digestive Tract.

- The organs that make it up are the mouth, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

-Organs are structures that help in the process of digestion are the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, gall bladder, and liver and pancreas.

Until food is digested and absorbed by the digestive tract it is not considerd "in" the body.


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Muscular System

The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body.

1.Visceral Muscle.
Visceral muscle is found inside of organs like the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels.
Visceral muscle makes organs contract to move substances through the organ.

2.Cardiac Muscle.
Cardiac muscle is responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. While hormones
and signals from the brain adjust the rate of contraction, cardiac muscle stimulates itself to
contract.

3.Skeletal Muscle.
Contract to move parts of the body closer to the bone that the muscle is attached to.
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Urinary System

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The
kidneys filter the blood to remove wastes and produce urine. The ureters, urinary
bladder, and urethra together form the urinary tract, which acts as a plumbing system
to drain urine from the kidneys, store it, and then release it during urination. Besides
filtering and eliminating wastes from the body, the urinary system also maintains the
homeostasis of water, ions, pH, blood pressure, and calcium.

1.Kidneys
The kidneys filter metabolic wastes, excess ions, and chemicals from the blood to form
urine.

2.Ureters
The ureters are a pair of tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

3.Urinary Bladder
The urinary bladder is a sac-like hollow organ used for the storage of urine

4.Urethra
the urethra is the tube through which urine passes from the bladder to the exterior of
the body.
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