Sociology

by: Emma Chapman

1. Socialization

  1. Socialization is the cultural process of learning to participate in group life. This learning takes place through cultural transmission.
  2. Socialization begins when you are born an goes through out your whole life, if it successful people are able to fit into different social group.
  3. If socialization fails or is neglected kids will go through social isolation, which is a condition of being set apart from others.
  4. Symbolic Interaction-ism uses multiple keys concepts to explain socialization, come include the self-concept, looking-glass self, significant others, and role taking.
  5. Self-concept is your image of yourself as having a separate identity from other people.
  6. Looking-glass self is a self concept based on our idea of others' judgment of us. It is made of three stages: we imagine how we appear to others, imagine reactions of others, and evaluate ourselves according to how people have judged us.
  7. Significant others are people whose judgement are most important to us than others this is most likely a mother or father figure.
  8. Role Taking allows us to see ourselves through the eyes of someone else. Children usually do this to learn how to do new things.


Similar to other topics:

- Socialization is similar to the other topics, because it is the reason we react and do certain things. For culture, socialization teaches us how our culture acts and for sociology in sports, it determines how important sports are to us and how we react during those sports. Also for minorities in sports socialization determines how we treat minorities, depending on how we were brought up. Gender roles and socialization is similar to minorities in sports and socialization.


Relates to my life:

- Socialization relates to my life, because it explains how I am the way I am. It shows what made me who I am today, including my self-concept and how role taking taught me skills from my parents.

2. Culture- Norms and Values

  1. Norms are rules that define behavior and help explain why people in a society or group behave similarly in similar circumstances.
  2. William Graham Sumner said that anything can be considered appropriate when norms approve of it and the members of the society use norms to guide their social behavior.
  3. Three factors that cause Change in social norms are invention, discovery, and diffusion.
  4. There are four types of norms and terms that make up how we behave in social situations: folkways, mores, taboo, and laws.
  5. Folkways are rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving but lack moral overtones. An example: would be sleeping in a bed instead of sleeping on the floor.
  6. Mores are norms of great moral significance and are vital to the well-being of a society. An example: Americans behave that able-bodied men should work and if they don't they are scorned.
  7. Taboo is a norm so strong that its violation demands punishment by the group or some people even think the supernatural. An example is that in India the followers of Hinduism have a taboo forbidding the killing of cows.
  8. Laws are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. An example would be that your con't go over the speed limit when driving and if you do you will get a ticket from a cop.


Relates to other topics:

- Cultural Norms relate to all other topics, because it is the way we see things and how we decide of something is bad or not. For minorities, grander roles, and the socialization cultural norms determine how we will act.


Relates to my life:

- Cultural Norms relate to my life, because they decide how I am going to react to certain things. Like a man picking his nose will disgust me, because it is a folkway that is found to be gross. Cultural norms are apart of my culture and they are what I was raised to believe in.

3. Sociology in Sports

  1. Sports are typically known as a social institution, because people have the power to oppress, manipulate, and exploit others. Chariot Racing in Rome is an example of sport that is a social institution.
  2. Sports reflect american society, because it shows how much Americans want to achieve and dominate others in certain things, like sports.
  3. Sport subculture is a group within a larger context of sport that has some of its own distinct values, roles and norms. An example would be hockey players and how fighting during games in normal.
  4. Culture is created and reinforced through sports, which is mainly how people act and feel about certain things.
  5. The negative effects of sports on society as seen thought the conflict theory is that sports mirror unique distribution of power and money.
  6. Social interaction and self concepts affected by sports, because some boys or girls try to show their masculinity by being more aggressive and the weaker ones are put down by them overall lowering their self-esteem.
  7. Sports are not necessary to socialize children, because there are many ways to social them. Many parents do it, because that how they were brought up or they want their children to succeed.
  8. Socialization through sports can have negative side effects which are that children are taught that aggressiveness and fighting is the right way to handle problems and they also put others down in their group by being too aggressive.


Relates to other topics:

- Socialization in sports and socialization are very similar, because socializing through sports is just another way of socialization. Minorities in sports are creates through socialization in sports, because when some kids think they are the best in sports it causes some kids who are not as good and seem weaker to become a minority. Socialization in sports has to do with culture, because it is a main aspect of what makes up culture. Gender roles are affected by socialization in sports, because women become the inferior athletes under men, because they are seen as weaker during a sports game. This can teach some men to think women are weaker in all aspects, not just sports.


Relating to my life:

- Socialization in Sports has to do with my life, because I raised was doing dance and eventually playing soccer for the rest of life. I was raised good and the negative effects of socialization in sports did not reach me. However I have seen some people who think sports are everything and think they are better than everyone else resulting them in being aggressive and sometimes rude.

4. Minorities in Sports

  1. Sports do create minorities, but they also give minorities chances to things they want to do. An example would be the first negro baseball league, which gave black people a chance to play baseball.
  2. Some other opportunities given my sports to minorities is the chance to play in college and attend college and maybe in the professional league of their sport. After the sports is over they can use the education they gained and use it to continue their lives.
  3. The law that was passed to give women the chance to play sports was the Educational Amendment act.
  4. For women sexism is very present in sports, because they are no treated as well as the men and are laughed at for trying to play sports. This causes women to want to give up and it also classifies them as a minority.
  5. For the African Americans wanting to play sports they had to face a lot of racism. They were always said to be not as good as a white man when really they were just as good, this made them a minority in sports.
  6. The AAGPBL and Negro Baseball League should everyone that minorities in sports where just as good as white men. These leagues helped a lot for minorities in sports today and has also lowered the amount of minorities and how we view them.
  7. Women sports have grown over the years and there are more teams national ranked.
  8. Women still face issues in sports like not being popular and not getting payed as much as men in sports do. A rime example would the US women's soccer team and how they started a campaign for women to get equal pay in not only sports, but in the work place.


Relates to other topics:

- Minorities in sports relates to other topics like socialization in sports, because the socialization for sports creates minorities in sports. Minorities in sports are hug part of culture and our culture determines how treat those minorities. Gender Roles are part of minorities in sports, because women are minorities in sports. Minorities in sports have to do with socialization, because our socialization determines how we decide of someone is a minority or not.


Relates to my life:

- Minorities in sports relates to my life, because I am a girl and they are considered Minorities in sports. I don't see myself as a minority, because I play soccer and our team is very good and popular throughout the school.

Minorities in Sports - AAGPBL

The league gave over 600 women the chance to play major league baseball and live out their dreams. This league was unique aspect of the nations baseball history and it still continues to inspire women today to follow their dreams. Everyone will remember how the AAGPBL was a huge step for equality in sports. Before this league women were minorities in sports and did not have the chance to do things like the men did. This league gave them that chance which gave women not only a boost in confidence, but it also showed the world that women could do things that men could do.

5. Gender Roles- Women as a Minority Group

  1. Sexism is defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify gender inequality. Sexism is mainly a threat to women today.
  2. Some people say sex discrimination is disappearing, because women hold key positions in jobs, but there are still more problems under the surface of that.
  3. One problem is unequal pay. Women make less money than men in multiple jobs to this day. One example is the US women soccer team and how they make less than the men's soccer team, even though they have won the World Cup.
  4. Women now a days are most likely to succeed educational attainment than men. More women are graduating college and high school them men.
  5. Occupational sex segregation is that even though women are participating in the work force they are still put lower-status jobs.
  6. Women earn about 81% of what men earn.
  7. Women in movies and books are still seen as the nurturing and caring ones while men do the hard work and are expected to come home and see a prepared meal for them by the women.
  8. Women in Disney movies are very stereotypical, they cry a lot, are talkative, need protection from men, and are the submissive sex. There have been many push for Disney to change how some female charterers act in movies.


Relates to other topics:

- Gender roles have to do with minorities in sports, because women are seen as a minority in sports to this day. Socialization has to do with minorities in sports, because socialization is how people where taught to treat women, by men learning to be the strong one and girls being taught to know their place. It also has to do with sociology in sports, because women are seen differently in sports and are reacted to differently during a sports game.


Relates to my life:

- This relates to my life, because I am a women and I do not like the idea that I will be paid less just because I am a girl. This topic is very relevant to my life now at my age, because I am starting to find jobs and it will be hard to find a good paying one, because I am a girl.

Gender Roles - Equal pay Act

  • This act was passed by Congress to diminish the discrimination of women when it came to being paid less than men.

  • This helped women have more equality in the workplace and it also helped them make more money to support their family.

  • The Act was passed on June 10, 1963 by John F. Kennedy as part of his New Frontier Program.

AND THAT IS WHAT I LEARNED IN SOCIOLOGY