Hitler

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What was Hitler famous for?

Adolf Hitler was the infamous dictator of Germany who carried out the genocide of Jews and was majorly responsible for the World War II. He started racial cleansing programs, killing many deemed "unworthy." Hitler also killed many of his own people; 11 to 14 million people in total.

What kind of leader was Adolf Hitler?

Hitler was a cruel and oppressive Nazi dictator. A main Nazi concept was the notion of racial hygiene. New laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans. He also deprived people that were not up to his standards of benefits of German citizenship. His policies targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, and later created a euthanasia program for disabled adults.

What is the Weimar Republic?

The Weimar Republic faced many problems. Perhaps the greatest danger was "the weakness within" - the constitution gave the President, the states and the army too much power, whilst proportional voting meant that the Reichstag was divided and weak. In 1919-23, extremists on both the Left (especially the Spartacist revolt) and the Right (especially the Kapp Putsch) tried to overthrow the government.

The worst crisis occurred in 1923, when the French invaded to try to force Germany to pay reparations. This led to hyperinflation and a number of rebellions (particularly Hitler's Munich Putsch).

What is the Treaty of Versailles?

The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. It took Alsace-Lorraine, Eupen, Malmedy, Northern Schleswig, Hultschin, West Prussia, Posen, and Upper Silesia away from Germany and distributed it to countries affected by the war. The German military was reduced to 10,000, and it were not allowed to have tanks, air force, submarines, and no more than six capital naval ships. Germany also had to admit full responsibility for the start of the war and was held responsible for all damages during the war.

What were the conditions like in Germany following WWI?

The worldwide economic depression had hit the country especially hard, and millions of people were out of work. Still fresh in the minds of many was Germany's humiliating defeat fifteen years earlier during World War I, and Germans lacked confidence in their weak government, known as the Weimar Republic. These conditions provided the chance for the rise of a new leader, Adolf Hitler, and his party, the National Socialist German Workers' Party, or Nazi party for short. World War II was a tragic time for Europe. During the war, many people that were not up to Hitler's standards in Europe were put into concentration camps by the Nazis.

What allowed Adolf Hitler rise to power?

Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kampf. His “1,000 Year Reich” barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.

Was techniques did Hitler use to win over the citizens?

Propaganda served as an important tool to win over the majority of the German public who had not supported Adolf Hitler and to push forward the Nazis' radical program, which required the acquiescence, support, or participation of broad sectors of the population. Combined with the use of terror to intimidate those who did not comply, a new state propaganda apparatus headed by Joseph Goebbels sought to manipulate and deceive the German population and the outside world. At each step of the way, propagandists preached an appealing message of national unity and a utopian future that resonated with millions of Germans. Simultaneously, they waged campaigns that facilitated the persecution of Jews and others excluded from the Nazi vision of the “National Community.”

What is the holocaust?

The origin of the "Final Solution," the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jewish people, remains uncertain. What is clear is that the genocide of the Jews was the culmination of a decade of Nazi policy, under the rule of Adolf Hitler. The "Final Solution" was implemented in stages. After the Nazi party rise to power, state-enforced racism resulted in anti-Jewish legislation, boycotts, "Aryanization," and finally the "Night of Broken Glass" pogrom, all of which aimed to remove the Jews from German society. After the beginning of World War II, anti-Jewish policy evolved into a comprehensive plan to concentrate and eventually annihilate European Jewry.

The Nazis established ghettos in occupied Poland. Polish and western European Jews were deported to these ghettos. During the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, mobile killing squads (Einsatzgruppen) began killing entire Jewish communities. The methods used, mainly shooting or gas vans, were soon regarded as inefficient and as a psychological burden on the killers.

After the Wannsee Conference in January 1942, the Nazis began the systematic deportation of Jews from all over Europe to six extermination camps established in former Polish territory -- Chelmno , Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, Auschwitz-Birkenau, and Majdanek. Extermination camps were killing centers designed to carry out genocide. About three million Jews were gassed in extermination camps.

In its entirety, the "Final Solution" consisted of gassings, shootings, random acts of terror, disease, and starvation that accounted for the deaths of about six million Jews -- two-thirds of European Jewry.