Mining & Fracking

Sally O'dea and Grace Hatch


What is it?

  • the process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure. In order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside
How is this done?

  1. Water is mixed with sand and chemicals. This creates fracking fluid
  2. The fracking fluid is then pressure injected into the ground through drilled pipe line
  3. The mixture reaches the end of the well where the high pressure causes the nearby shale rock to crack. This creates fissures where natural gas flows into the well
Environmental Effects

  • Contaminates the water through leaking methane gas and toxic chemicals
  • Contaminates drinking water with cases of sensory, respiratory, and neurological damage

Mining (Surface Mining)

Surface mining:
  1. Strip Mining
  • involves digging earth, rock, and other material to uncover a layered mineral reserve

2. Open Pit

  • taking rocks or minerals from the earth by removing them from an open pit

3. Mountain top removal

  • coal seams are taken from a mountain by removing the land

Environmental Effects:

  • Destroys land
  • Sediments pollute water ways
  • Causes dust and noise pollution

Subsurface Minig

Subsurface mining:

1. Slope

  • a method of getting valuable geological material. Such as coal or ore
2. Drift

  • near horizontal passage way in a mine following a bed or vein of ore
3. Shaft

  • a method of making a tunnel form the top down, where there is no access to the bottom

Environmental Effects:

  • Acid drainage from the equipment
  • Toxic water in groundwater finds its way to streams and rivers
  • Abandoned mining sites can continue polluting after the work has discontinued