Southern Colonies

Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia


The Virginia Colony was founded in 1607 by John Smith and other colonists including John Rolfe. It made its money from plantation agriculture. They sold tobacco, wheat, and corn. By 1775, Virginia was governed as a royal colony. The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America. The Virginia colony first housed around 105 people from England. There was conflict between the Natives and the colonists. Following an initial period of peaceful relations, a 12-year conflict left many natives and colonists dead, but the remaining colonists were victorious. There was no set religion in the Virginia colony but most of the people living in the colony were Anglican & Baptist.


In 1634, Maryland was founded by George Calvert (Lord Baltimore). They made their money by producing tobacco. Maryland was a Proprietary colony. Maryland's population in 1634 was around 150. The Native Americans that inhabited the area were the Yaocomico Indians but there was no conflict between the Native Americans and the colonists. There was no set religion in Maryland, but most of the colonists were either Catholic, Anglican, or Baptist.

North Carolina

North Carolina was founded in 1653 by Virginia colonists. The colonists of North Carolina made their money by producing navel stores, which is tar, pitch, and turpentine. North Carolina was a royal colony then changed to a proprietary colony. The population in 1653 was around 600. The relationship between the Native Americans and the colonists was at first peaceful, then the settlers thought that they owned the land and this began confrontations between the Native Americans and the settlers. There was also no set religion in North Carolina, but most of the colonists were either Anglican or Baptist.

South Carolina

South Carolina was founded by English colonists in 1663. The colonists made money by growing and producing indigo and rice. Like North Carolina, South Carolina was a royal colony but then changed into a proprietary colony. One of the major conflicts between Native Americans and settlers was over land. The Native Americans hunted and gathered their food on the land, and believed that the land was for everyone. The settlers claimed land for themselves and interfered with the Native American way of life. There was also no set religion in South Carolina, but the colonists were also Anglican or Baptist.


In 1732, James Oglethorpe received a royal charter for the Province of Georgia. Georgia made its money by producing rice, indigo, beef and pork. Georgia was a royal colony. Georgia's population in 1732 was 116 and they were all from England. James Oglethorpe in turn wanted help and friendship from the Yamacraw chief Tomochichi. From the first contact between these two, a friendship and mutual respect occurred which helped pave the way for the success of the new colony. There was also no set religion in Georgia. The religions that most settlers were was Anglican and Baptist.