The Sun's Core
The Suns Core is the central region where nuclear reactions consume hydrogen to form helium. This reaction is what causes the suns surface to appear so visibly light. In the Sun and similar stars, the nuclear burning takes place through a three step process called the proton-proton chain or pp chain.
The radiative zone extends outward from the outer edge of the core to the interface layer or tachocline at the base of the convection zone (from 25% of the distance to the surface to 70% of that distance).The radiative zone is what puts out radiation, thus its name.
The convection zone is the outer-most layer of the solar interior. It extends from a depth of about 200,000 km right up to the visible surface. The temperature is about 2,000,000° C or 3,600,032 degrees Fahrenheit.
The Chromosphere is the layer above the photosphere, where the temperature ranges 6000°C to about 20,000°C. There is a lot of activity in the chromosphere, and you can witness changes in the solar flare, prominence, and filament eruptions all within one minute.
The Sun's corona is an aura of plasma that surrounds the sun and other celestial bodies. The Sun's corona extends millions of kilometers into space and is most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but it is also observable with a coronagraph.
Sunspots are colder and darker spots on the Suns surface, typically presenting in the layer called the photosphere. They can be over 50,000 kilometers in diameter and 3,800 degrees Kelvin. They are typically caused by reactions with the suns magnetic field.
A prominence is a large, bright, gaseous feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop shape. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of brightness observed near the Sun's surface. Solar flares affect all layers of the solar atmosphere (photosphere, chromosphere, and corona), Flares occur when sped up charged particles, mainly electrons, interact with the plasma medium.
Aurora are one effect of energy particles, which can speed out from the sun both in a steady stream called the solar wind and due to giant eruptions known as coronal mass ejections or CMEs. After a trip toward Earth that can last two to three days, the solar particles and magnetic fields cause the release of particles already trapped near Earth, which in turn trigger reactions in the upper atmosphere in which oxygen and nitrogen molecules release photons of light.