Important Physics News

With all the remarkable physics news, videos and interviews.

Introduction

This page is made as a school project. It'll uphold few subject text connected to Physics, in Icelandic and English. It will also uphold summarizes from the website "Ted.com".

Summarization of "How to go to space, without having to go to space"

The main idea of the video is that the guy in this video, Angelo Vermeulen, is doing an art project called Seeker. The project is about coming up with starship prototypes that re-envision human habitation and survival in outer space. In the end, they make and build it (a small version, of course) of the starships with a group of people. After that, there's another experience in the project where you need to test the equipment on the driest place on Earth. They're trying to redefine how we will live in outer space, how the future will be in space.

Hefur geislun frá fartölvum sem menn sitja oft með í kjöltunni einhver skaðleg áhrif á líkamann?

Rafsegulgeislun fartölvu, til dæmis þegar hún er tengd þráðlausu neti, hefur fremur lága tíðni og flytur litla orku, minni en geislun frá farsímum og margfalt minni en til dæmis röntgengeislun. Í rannsóknum á áhrifum rafsegulsviðs á frumur, meðal annars sæðisfrumur, hafa menn greint breytingar á starfsemi þeirra í tilraunaglösum, en það er hins vegar ekki hlaupið að því að sýna fram á áhrif rafsegulsviðs á menn. Það skýrist meðal annars af því hve margt annað í umhverfinu getur valdið sömu eða álíka einkennum. Einnig er rétt að hafa í huga að rafsegulgeislun af ýmsum uppruna er mjög algeng í umhverfi okkar. Nokkur dæmi eru um að hiti frá fartölvu sem hvílir á lærum hafi skaðað húðina og valdið varanlegum húðroða. Slíkur roði kemur fram við langvarandi hita sem þó er ekki svo mikill að húð brenni. Að lokum má geta þess að aukinn hiti getur haft óhagstæð áhrif á sæðisframleiðslu.

Does radiation from laptop which people sit commonly with on their lap any damaging effects to your body?

Electromagnetic radiation from a laptop, like when it‘s connected to wireless internet, has quite low frequency and moves little energy, less than the radiation from cellphones and multiple times less than, for example X-Ray radiation. In studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on cells, including sperm, people have reported changes on their behaviour and on their activity in lab glasses (also known as vitro) but it doesn‘t demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic fields on men. It explains how many other things in the enviroment can have the same or similar symptoms. You should also have in mind that electromagnetic radiation from various kinds of sources is very common in our enviroment. There are some examples that the heat from a laptop when resting on our thighs has cause some damage on skin and permanent erythroderma, which is a skin disease. That kind of skin disease comes with prolonged heat which isn‘t hot enough to cause our skin to burn. As a final note, it‘s good to know that increases in temperature can have bad effects on sperm population.

The reason why I chose this subject text over anything else is because I wanted to know the answer of it and I figured out that it is probably a common thing for people to rest their laptop on their thighs. This could help some people with the effects of doing it. Also, I wanted to try find something roughly around 250 words but I had to take some parts out of the article because it was repetitive so it ended around 150 words. I guess I‘ll make it up on the other subject text and have that one bit longer.
It wasn't tough at all translating the text from Icelandic to English because the vocabulary there was something I have already learned through past English classes. Things like X-ray radiation, vitro, erythroderma and electromagnetic were the toughest one to translate but it didn't take a long time to do it.

Summarization of "What we can learn from galaxies far, far away"

The main summarization of this video is to find things in the universe that we can learn from. Henry Lin starts talking about clusters in space and find things about them that are interesting and that we can learn. Things like gravity can be learned by galaxy clusters. Also that small things that are found in laboratories can happen in the nature. The main point is that you can figure out things in real life, even things that a lot of people have been troubled by, just by looking at galaxies far, far away and trying to understand why is everything like it is there.

The experimental strontium lattice clock

As described in Nature Communications, the experimental strontium lattice clock at JILA, a joint institute of NIST and the University of Colorado Boulder, is now more than three times as precise as it was last year, when it set the previous world record. Precision refers to how closely the clock approaches the true resonant frequency at which the strontium atoms oscillate between two electronic energy levels. The clock's stability -- how closely each tick matches every other tick -- also has been improved by almost 50 percent, another world record.

The JILA clock is now good enough to measure tiny changes in the passage of time and the force of gravity at slightly different heights. Einstein predicted these effects in his theories of relativity, which mean, among other things, that clocks tick faster at higher elevations. Many scientists have demonstrated this, but with less sensitive techniques.

"Our performance means that we can measure the gravitational shift when you raise the clock just 2 centimeters on the Earth's surface," JILA/NIST Fellow Jun Ye says. "I think we are getting really close to being useful for relativistic geodesy."

Relativistic geodesy is the idea of using a network of clocks as gravity sensors to make precise 3D measurements of the shape of Earth. Ye agrees with other experts that, when clocks can detect a gravitational shift at 1 centimeter differences in height -- just a tad better than current performance -- they could be used to achieve more frequent geodetic updates than are possible with conventional technologies such as tidal gauges and gravimeters.

To help measure and maintain the atoms' thermal environment, NIST's Wes Tew and Greg Strouse calibrated two platinum resistance thermometers, which were installed in the clock's vacuum chamber in Colorado. Researchers also built a radiation shield to surround the atom chamber, which allowed clock operation at room temperature rather than much colder, cryogenic temperatures.

You can read more about it at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150421132031.htm

Tilrauna strontíngrindklukkan

Eins og lýst er í Nature Communications var haldið áfram tilraunum á tilrauna strontíngrindklukkan hjá JILA, sameiginleg stofnun af NIST og University of Colorado Boulder, en hún er nú meira en þrisvar sinnum nákvæmnari en það var á síðasta ári, þegar klukkan setti heimsmet. Nákvæmnin segir til um hversu nálægt klukkan kemst að hinu sönnu tíðni þar sem strontín atóm sveiflast milli tvö gildi þar sem ögn af bundnu efni getur tekið að sér. Stöðugleiki klukkunar – hversu nálægt hvert tikk í klukku er því næsta – hefur einnig verið bætt við 50% prósent, sem er annað heimsmet. JILA klukkan er núna nógu góð til að mæla örlitlar breytingar á tíma og þyngdarkraft á örlitlum mismunandi hæðum. Einstein spáði þessi áhrif í afstæðiskenningunni sinni, sem þýðir meðal annars að klukkua slær hraðar því hærra sem hún er uppi. Margir vísindamenn hafa sýnt fram á þessu en með verri tækni.
„Okkar framkvæmd þýðir að við getum mælt sérstakt ferli þar sem rafsegulgeislun er upprunnin frá uppsprettu þar sem þyngdarsvið er minnkað í tíðni þegar það er skoðað í svæði sem er veikara en þyngdarsviðið sjálft (í.ö.o. kallað þyngdaraflsferlið), þegar hækkað er klukkuna um 2 sentimetra á yfirborði jarðar,“ segir JILA/NIST Fellow Jun Ye. „Ég held að við séum að komast mjög nálægt því að vera gagnleg fyrir relativistic landmælingar.“ Relativistic landmælingar er sá hugmynd um að nota hóp af klukkum sem þyngdaraflskynjara til þess að gera nákvæmnar 3D mælingar af lögun jarðar. Fellow Jun Ye er sammála öðrum sérfræðingum að, þegar klukkur geta greint þyngdaraflsferlið þegar það er 1 sentímeter munur á hæð – bara réttsvo betra en núverandi árangur – gætu klukkurnar verið notaðar til að ná tíðari landmælinga uppfærslur en er mögulegt með hefðbundnu tækni svo sem sjávarfallamælitæki og þyngdaraflstæki, sem er notað til að mæla þyngdaraflssviðið. Til þess að hjálpa mælingar og viðhalda réttu hitastigi umhverfis atóma, fínstilltu tveir menn frá NIST að nafni Wes Tew og Greg Strouse tvö hitamælitæki úr platínu, en þessi mælitæki voru sett í lofttóm hólf í klukkunni í Colorado. Vísindamenn byggðu einnig geilsunarskjöld sem umkringir hólf atómsins, sem leyfir klukkunni að virka við stofuhita í staðinn fyrir hitastig undir -150°C.

Hægt er að lesa meira um þetta á http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150421132031.htm
The reason why I chose to talk about the experimental strontium lattice clock is because it seems quite important since they're breaking a new world record and it's just pure physics behind it. There is maybe some bit of chemistry with the chemical, why they picked platinum and strontium instead of other elements and so on but most of it is physics.
It was bit tricky translating it from English to Icelandic. Not because there were a lot of words but the vocabulary was extremely complicated. Words like lattice, gravitational shift and relativistic geodesy is something you don't hear every day and it was hard to figure out what those words meant. I used Google to figure out what the meaning of those words in English was and tried to find the perfect Icelandic word that described it. One time I couldn't find any word to describe it so instead of using a single word, I wrote the description of it instead to show the reader that it does mean that. Other than that, it wasn't that particulary tough to deal with.

Summarization of "Why we should trust scientists"

The main idea of this video is whether or not we should believe in scientists and their beliefs or not. The author of this video, Naomi Oreskes, goes deep into how scientists uses evidence and beliefs to figure out what's right and what's wrong. Her main point is that science is extremely closely linked to technology. For example, automobile (car) works so well not because of Henry Ford or anyone that found cars up, but because of all the people, scientists, that have collected data and worked on that particular subject, automobile. Without scientists working on automobile, automobile wouldn't maybe even exist.