Hot Springs National Park

Kirbie Koonse

Abiotic Components


  • Located in central Arkansas adjacent to the city of Hot Springs. The thermal springs are in the Ouachita Mountains

  • Coordinates: 34.5136 degrees N, 93.053 degrees W


  • Hot Springs is a Temperate Deciduous Forest biome.
  • This biome can be found in most of eastern United States, Japan, China and Europe.
  • Staunton, Virginia is an example of a Temperate Deciduous Forest biome. Coordinates: 38° 9′ 29″ N, 79° 4′ 35″ W
  • Temperate Deciduous Forests are in mid-latitude areas, which means they are in between the tropic and polar areas. This causes them to go through a distinct four seasons. Leaves of the trees will always fall off through fall and most of winter.


  • The temperature varies between the season, and usually have wet summers and cold winters.
  • This biome usually gets between 30 to 60 inches of rain a year, which creates a wide range of plant life.
  • The soil in temperate forests contains a lot of nutrients. Temperate forests are often cleared to make way for farms, houses, and golf courses. The main types of soil are alfisols, ultisols, rocky and sandy soils. There is not usually a large amount of vegetation but the forest does have a surplus of flowers and trees.
  • Lack of light can effect the ground floor of the forest, because the canopy from the trees above may block out the sun.
  • Wind patterns are a big factor towards the temperature of this biome. Usually the climate is moderate and annually at 50 degrees.

Local Water Quality

The park has been nick named "The American Spa" for the past 100 years due to the mineral hot tubs nature provides there. The water is believed to be therapeutic and relaxing, which is why it attracts so many visitors. The mineral water is completely safe and is heated naturally under the earth. Approximately 700,000 gallons are pumped to the base of the Hot Springs mountain each day. The water can also be drank, and has been since the Native Americans who found it. The water also lacks bacteria and is used to prevent the spread of disease.


Silica (SiO2)


Bicarbonate (HCO3)


Calcium (Ca)


Sulfate (SO4)


Magnesium (Mg)


Sodium (Na)


Chloride (Cl)


Fluoride (F)


Potassium (K)


Oxygen (O2)


Free Carbon Dioxide (CO2)


Energy, Geology, and Geography

Geologists believe that just the right combination of rock types and old faults exists here to permit water to flow deep, where it is heated by surrounding rock. The deeper the water goes the hotter it gets. Energy is used and transferred in this constant cycle of rain water getting heated by the earth and forming the hot springs.

Natural Events

Between 1957 and 1999 there were 12 tornados that went through Hot Spring county, but none that did significant damage to the National Park.