Pathogens

By: Kasadi Prater

AIDS

AIDS is a medical condition. A person is diagnosed with AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infections. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy.


Strep Throat

Strep throat is caused by streptococcal (strep) bacteria. There are many different types of strep bacteria. Some cause more serious illness than others.

Although some people are quick to think that any painful sore throat is strep, sore throats are caused by a viral infection and not strep bacteria. A sore throat caused by a virus can be just as painful as strep throat. But if you have cold symptoms such as coughing, sneezing, or a runny or stuffy nose, you probably do not have strep throat.


Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that usually infects the lungs, but can attack almost any part of the body. Tuberculosis is spread from person to person through the air. When a person with TB in their lungs or throat coughs, laughs, sneezes, sings, or even talks, the germs that cause TB may spread through the air. If another person breathes in these germs, there is a chance that they will become infected with tuberculosis.


Ring Worms

  • Ringworm is a common fungal infection of the skin and is not due to a worm.
  • The medical term for ringworm is tinea. The condition is further named for the site of the body where the infection occurs.
  • Ringworm causes a scaly, crusted rash that may itch.
  • Ringworm can be successfully treated with antifungal medications used either topically or orally.


Vaginal Yeast Infection

Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the vagina, mouth, digestive tract, and on the skin. Usually it does not cause disease or symptoms.

Candida and the many other germs that normally live in the vagina keep each other in balance. However, sometimes the number of Candida albicans increases, leading to a yeast infection.

This can happen if you are:

  • Taking antibiotics used to treat other types of infections. Antibiotics change the normal balance between germs in the vagina by decreasing the number of protective bacteria.
  • Pregnant
  • Obese
  • Have diabetes

A yeast infection is not a sexually transmitted illness. However, some men will develop symptoms such asitching and a rash on the penis after having sexual contact with an infected partner.

Having many vaginal yeast infections may be a sign of other health problems. Other vaginal infections and discharges can be mistaken for a vaginal yeast infection.


Sleeping Sickness

  • Sleeping sickness occurs only in 36 sub-Saharan Africa countries where there are tsetse flies that transmit the disease.
  • The people most exposed to the tsetse fly and therefore the disease live in rural areas and depend on agriculture, fishing, animal husbandry or hunting.
  • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b.g.) accounts for more than 98% of reported cases of sleeping sickness.
  • Sustained control efforts have lowered the number of new cases reported to 6743 in 2011 and 7197 in 2012 respectively.
  • Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is complex and requires specifically skilled staff.


Malaria

Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It was once thought that the disease came from fetid marshes, hence the name mal•aria (bad air). In 1880, scientists discovered the real cause of malaria: a one-cell parasite called plasmodium. Later they discovered that the parasite is transmitted from person to person through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood to nurture her eggs.


Herpes

Genital herpes is a common and highly contagious infection usually spread through sex. This infection is usually caused by the herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) or the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), the virus usually responsible for cold sores. Genital herpes treatment includes medicines to help sores heal faster and prevent outbreaks.


Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. This organism is a cause of potentially fatal human illness in North and South America, and is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected tick species.


Typhus

Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Rickettsia bacteria.[1] The name comes from the Greek typhos (τῦφος) meaning smoky or hazy, describing the state of mind of those affected with typhus. The causative organism Rickettsia is an obligate parasite bacterium that cannot survive for long outside living cells. Typhus should not be confused with typhoid fever. While "typhoid" means "typhus-like", the diseases are distinct and are caused by different species of bacteria.