Psychology

Katrín Jóna Guðjónsdóttir

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Memory systems - Explicit memory

Explicit Memory


Explicit Memory can be partitioned in to two parts regularly: Episode memory and Semantic Memory. The psychologist Endel Tulving was the first to define the differences between those two memory systems. He described episode memory to be the folder of the past of every person (Tulving, 1972). Those two memory systems get the closest to the concept of memory in ordinary sense. The best way to define the difference between them is the most likely to explain that the other one takes sense in personal experience and the other in impersonal knowledge.

Episode memory is the memory of a personal experience and individual events. For those people who have walked the walking trail between Landmannalaugar and Þórsmerkur (Laugaveginn), has the memory of the trip a unique personal complexion. The same applies for many other events in our life. Some people may remember the first day of school or where and how they first learned to tie their shoes. These are all examples of memories that are folded in the episode memory. Potentially is the episode memory extraordinary for the human being (Tulving, 2002).

The Semantic Memory possesses our general knowledge of the world no matter if we have experienced it our self our or learned about it. That’s how we can build a little knowledge about Laugaveginn without ever turning to that area our self and utilize it to more maintenance.

Tulving (1985) defined the semantic memory as a memory that makes a human able to build inside him an atlas of the world.

Semantic memory stores a big part of the knowledge that we have learned in school.



Ljóst minni

Skipta má ljósu minni í tvennt: atburðarminni og merkingarminni. Sálfræðingurinn Endel Tulving skilgreindi fyrst muninn á þessum tveimur minniskerfum. Atburðaminni skilgreindi hann sem ævidögulega skrá einstaklings yfir hið liðna (Tulving, 1972). Þessi tvö minniskerfi komast ef til vill næst því að vera hið dæmigerða minni í þeim skilningi sem venjulega er lagður í það orð. Líkast til verður muninum á þeim best lýst með því að segja að annað taki til persónulegrar reynslu en hit til ópersónulegrar þekkingar.

Atburðaminni er persónulegt minni á einstök atvik. Fyrir þá sem hafa farið gönguleiðina milli landmannalauga og þórsmerkur, ,, Laugaveginn”, hefur minningin um ferðina einstakt persónulegt yfirbragð. Hið sama á við um mörg atvik í lífi okkar. Sumir muna kanski eftir fyrsta skóladeginum eða hvar og hvernig þeir lærðu fyrst að reima skóna sína. Allt eru þetta dæmi um minningar sem eru skráðar í atburðaminni. Hugsanlega er atburðarminni einstak fyrir mannsskepnuna ( Tulving, 2002).

Merkingarminni býr hins vegar yfir almennri þekkingu okkar á veröldinni óháð því hvort við höfum upplifað hlutina sjálf. Þannig getum við búið yfir allnokkurri vitneskju um að Laugaveginn án þess að hafa nokkurn tíma komið á þær slóðir sjálf. Merkingaminni hjálpar bæði mönnum og dýrum að afla sér þekkingar á umhverfinu og nýta hanan sér til framdáttar. Tulving (1985) skilgreindi merkingarminnið sem minni sem gerir einstaklegingum kleift að smíða líkan af veröldinni innra með sér. Merkingarminni geymir vísast stóran hluta af þeim fróðleik sem við höfum numið á skólabekk.


I chose this text because I thought he was interesting and it captured my mind. The methods that I used were and Icelandic - English dictionary and my psychology book "Almenn Sálfræði Hugur, heili go hátterni".


(Icelandic - English Translation)

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Abnormal psychology

Afbrigða sálfræði er ein af undirgreinum sálfræðinnar sem einblínir á óeðlilegt mynstur hegðunnar, tilfinninga og hugsanna sem gæti leitað til geðröskunnar. Þó svo að margar hegðunnir manna gæti talist sem afbrigðilegar, þá skoðar þessi grein sálfræðinnar hegðunina í klínisku samhengi. Löng saga er að baki tilrauna til að skilja og reyna stjórna hegðun sem telst afbrigðileg venjulegri hegðun (tölfræðilega, siðferðislega eða einhvað í þá átt) og oft er menningalegar breytingar teknar í þeirri nálgun. Svið afbrigðar sálfræði skilgreinir mismunandi orsakir venja sem ráðast af fjölbreyttum kenningum frá almennu sviði sálfræðinnar og annars staðar, og enn er velt því fyrir hvað sé nákvæmlega meint með ,, afbrigðilegt”.

Afbrigða sálfræði rannsakar tvær tegundir af hegðun: aðlögunarhæfni og aðlögunar örðuleikar. Hegðun aðlögunar örðuleika benda á að nokkur vandamál eru þá fyrir hendi og getur einni gefið til kynna að einstaklingurinn sé viðkvæmur og getur ekki tekist á við stress úr umhverfinu sem leiðir til þess að hann glímir við vandamál sem skerða hans daglega líf. Klínisk sálfræði er það svið sálfræðinnar sem leitast við að meta, skilja og meðhöndla sálrænar aðstæður í klínískum tilgangi. Fræðilega sviðið sem er þekkt sem ,,afbrigðarsálfræði” getur tengt sig við klíniska sálfræðivinnu en klíniskir sálfræðingar eru ólíklegir til að nota hugtakið afbrigðileg tilvísun inn í þeirra klíniska svið. “psychopathology” er nokkuð svipuð afbrigðilegri sálfræði en einblínir meira á undirliggjandi sjúkdómafræði og er meira skilgreind læknisfræðileg sérgrein, geðsjúkdómafræði.


Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder. Although many behaviours could be considered as abnormal, this branch of psychology generally deals with behavior in a clinical context.[1] There is a long history of attempts to understand and control behavior deemed to be aberrant or deviant (statistically, morally or in some other sense), and there is often cultural variation in the approach taken. The field of abnormal psychology identifies multiple causes for different conditions, employing diverse theories from the general field of psychology and elsewhere, and much still hinges on what exactly is meant by "abnormal".

The science of abnormal psychology studies two types of behaviors: adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. Behaviors that are maladaptive suggest that some problem(s) exist, and can also imply that the individual is vulnerable and cannot cope with environmental stress, which is leading them to have problems functioning in daily life.[3] Clinical psychology is the applied field of psychology that seeks to assess, understand and treat psychological conditions in clinical practice. The theoretical field known as 'abnormal psychology' may form a backdrop to such work, but clinical psychologists in the current field are unlikely to use the term 'abnormal' in reference to their practice. Psychopathology is a similar term to abnormal psychology but has more of an implication of an underlying pathology (disease process), and as such is a term more commonly used in the medical specialty known as psychiatry.


I chose this text because I wanted to understand a little more about abnormal psychology and how it defines it from others. The methods that I used were an English - Icelandic dictionary and the dictionary that is implied to my computer (English - English).


(English - Icelandic translation)

THE INTERVIEW

HANNES BJÖRNSSON

I chose to interview the school psychologist, Hannes Björnsson. I wanted to know more about how it is to be a working psychologist, especially in a high school like FSu. I wanted to get to know the toughest and the most entertaining parts of the job and last but not least how he educated himself to become a psychologist.

I wrote down five short questions for my interview



  • Where did you study?
  • Have you worked as a psychologist for a long time?
  • How about here at this school?
  • What is the toughest part of being a psychologist?
  • What is the most entertaining about this job?


I found out that he got his education at Háskóli Ísland, it’s a 5 year long term. 3 years at bachelors degree’s and 2 cand. Psych

He has been a psychologist for 5 years but before that; he was a priest for twelve years. He says that those two jobs have a lot in common.

I asked him for how long he has worked at Fjölbrautaskóli Suðurlands as a school psychologist for students. He told me that he just started this semester (January 2015) and that it was an experimental work.

When I asked him about the toughest part of being a psychologist I assumed he would answer that it was obviously dealing with clients with many difficulties and tough stories. But He told me he thought the toughest part was keeping track of the bookkeeping and all the paperwork he had to do all by him self.

After he told me about the toughest part I got really excited to hear about the most entertaining part about the job. He told me it was getting to meet all kinds of people, hearing their stories and see them get better in time.

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VIDEOS FROM TED

HOW TO SPOT A LIAR

The main Idea in this video is to present the body language of liars to people, Raise people's awareness that lying is biologically a part of being a human. On a normal day you've been lied to from 10 - 200 times on average, but their often indecent white lies and most of them are easy to see through if you're good a spotting liars.


I chose this video because it captured my mind and got my full attention from the moment I saw the title until the moment the video stopped.



YOUR BODY LANGUAGE SHAPES WHO YOU ARE

The mind can control the body, but can the body control the mind?

The idea of this video is multiple. She encourage people to fake it until they'll become it.

It can have a very broad meaning behind it. For an example low self esteemed people can fake having a high self-esteem until they'll become an high self esteemed person.


I chose this video because I have an lot interest in body language and I had heard good reviews about this woman.

THE KEY TO SUCCES? GRIT

the main Idea in this video is to educate people that to success in f.x. school you don't need a high level IQ or born on a silver plate. All you need to have is GRIT.


I chose this video because the title captured my mind. At first I thought it would be a very cliche kind of video but I was deeply wrong.

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