A tropical wet and dry climate predominates in areas covered by savanna growth. Mean monthly temperatures are at or above 64° F and annual precipitation averages between 30 and 50 inches. For at least five months of the year, during the dry season, less than 4 inches a month are received.
Savannas have a continuous cover of perennial grasses, often 3 to 6 feet tall at maturity. They have an open canopy of drought-resistant, fire-resistant, or browse-resistant trees, or an open shrub layer. Distinction is made between tree or woodland savanna, park savanna, shrub savanna and grass savanna.
Soils vary according to bedrock and edaphic conditions. In general, however, laterization is the dominant soil-forming process and low fertility oxisols can be expected.