Nuclear Energy

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Our Team

Our group, Drew, Zach, Jacob, and Christian, Have been working to learn about nuclear energy. Hope you enjoy!

Zach

Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors- neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is helium, temperature is 850 ºc, pressure is high, fuel is U-238+, fuel cycle is closed and on site, (MWe) 1200, and its uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors- neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is lead or Pb-Bi, temperature is 480-800 ºc, pressure is low, fuel is U-238 +, fuel cycle is closed and regional, (Mwe) 20-180** 300-1200 600-1000, uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Molten salt fast reactors: neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is fluoride salts, temperature is 700-800, pressure is low, fuel is UF in salt, fuel cycle is closed, (MWe) 1000, uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Molten salt reactor - Advanced High temperature reactors: neutron spectrum is thermal, coolant is fluoride salts, temperature is 750-1000, pressure is 0, fuel is UO2 particles in prism, fuel cycle is open, (MWe) 1000-1500, uses are hydrogen.


Sodium-cooled fast reactors: neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is sodium, temperature is 550, pressure is low, fuel is U-238 & MOX, fuel cycle is closed, (MWe)30-150 300-1500 1000-2000, uses are electricity.


Gas-Cooled Fast Reactors- neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is helium, temperature is 850 ºc, pressure is high, fuel is U-238+, fuel cycle is closed and on site, (MWe) 1200, and its uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors- neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is lead or Pb-Bi, temperature is 480-800 ºc, pressure is low, fuel is U-238 +, fuel cycle is closed and regional, (Mwe) 20-180** 300-1200 600-1000, uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Molten salt fast reactors: neutron spectrum is fast, coolant is fluoride salts, temperature is 700-800, pressure is low, fuel is UF in salt, fuel cycle is closed, (MWe) 1000, uses are electricity and hydrogen.


Molten salt reactor - Advanced High temperature reactors: neutron spectrum is thermal, coolant is fluoride salts, temperature is 750-1000, pressure is 0, fuel is UO2 particles in prism, fuel cycle is open, (MWe) 1000-1500, uses are hydrogen.

Drew

When it comes to nuclear energy there are many good parts and also some downsides one of the downsides could be that nuclear energy causes a lot of pollution but even though nuclear energy is a nonrenewable resource we have many years left at the rate of consumption that we are going. (approximately 200 years) Nuclear energy is also relatively cheap to operate and it is very strong along with the fact that nuclear energy is developed and ready for use and it is still in process of being improved.
However, there are still many downsides as well. One downside is that the waste can last up to 500 thousand years. Nuclear waste is known for being very durable and it takes up a lot of space in the world currently. Also nuclear energy causes a lot of pollution and it is based mainly on uranium, which is a nonrenewable resource, and will eventually run out. Luckily there is a reasonable amount of time left as mentioned earlier. This type of energy is also known very well for having defects on animals giving their offspring birth defects such as lopsided limbs and missing limbs.

Jacob

The use of nuclear energy is to provide electricity for homes, offices, and factories. Nuclear binding, is the process required to split the nucleus of an atom into its component parts. There are 3 component parts in an atom; protons, neutrons, and a nucleus. At nuclear power plants, the heat to make the steam is created when uranium atoms split, this is called fission. There is no combustion in a nuclear reactor.

Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources

Renewable resources are resources that can be created again in a relatively short amount of time. Some examples are trees, pants, animals, cotton, geothermal, wind, hydropower, biomass, ect. Pros of renewable resources are able to be renewed in short amount of time, don't cause pollution, and accessibility.cons are high developing cost, not able in all areas, and large areas required. Nonrenewable resources are resources that take hundreds of millions of years to create. some examples are Coal petroleum, nuclear power, natural gas,propane, and uranium. Some pros are availability, cost, and the technologies that are used are well developed. Some cons are pollution, will run out, and this will result in the climate crisis.

10 ways to save energy

Turn off the lights before you leave the room.

2.Change the settings of the thermostat constantly

3.Put wasted paper in the recycling bin in cafeteria

4.Don’t use electric lights unless there are no windows

5. Have all technology charged once a day in the library

6. Use more renewable energy resources

7.Don’t use that much energy every single time

8.Use sunlight as light if you don’t have any light in your house

9.drink more tap water

10. Open the blinds and windows to let heat and sunlight in

pros

  • relatively Low operating costs.

  • Large power-generating capable to meet industrial and city needs.

  • future nuclear waste can be reduced through waste recycling and reprocessing.

cons

  • High construction costs due to complex radiation systems and procedures.

  • Nuclear is a centralized power source which makes it have large infrastructure, investment, and coordination.

  • Waste lasts 200 – 500 thousand years.

Christian

Nuclear power plants use “nuclear fission” (the process of splitting an atom in two). “Nuclear fusion” (the process of combining atoms into one) has the potential to be safer but has not yet been developed to operate within a large power plant. Every 18 to 24 months, a power plant must shut down to remove its spent fuel, which becomes radioactive waste.13% of the world’s electricity comes from nuclear power plants that emit little to no greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy is being used in more than 30 countries around the world and even powers Mars rovers.


Nuclear reactors become preferred targets during military conflict and, over the past three decades, there has been repeatedly attacked during military air strikes, occupations, invasions and campaigns:

In September 1980, Iran bombed the Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex in Iraq in Operation Scorch Sword.

In June 1981, an Israeli air strike completely destroyed Iraq's Osirak nuclear research facility in Operation Opera.

Between 1984 and 1987, Iraq bombed Iran's Bushehr nuclear plant six times.

On 8 January 1982, Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing of the ANC, attacked South Africa's Koeberg nuclear power plant while it was still under construction.

In 1991, the U.S. bombed three nuclear reactors and an enrichment pilot facility in Iraq.

In 1991, Iraq launched Scud missiles at Israel's Dimona nuclear power

In September 2007, Israel bombed a Syrian reactor under construction.

In the U.S., plants are surrounded by a double row of tall fences which are electronically monitored. The plant grounds are patrolled by a sizeable force of armed guards. The NRC's "Design Basis Threat" criterion for plants is a secret, and so what size of attacking force the plants are able to protect against is unknown. However, to scram (make an emergency shutdown) a plant takes fewer than 5 seconds while unimpeded restart takes hours, severely hampering a terrorist force in a goal to release radioactivity.

Attack from the air is an issue that has been highlighted since the September 11 attacks in the U.S. However, it was in 1972 when three hijackers took control of a domestic passenger flight along the east coast of the U.S. and threatened to crash the plane into a U.S. nuclear weapons plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plane got as close as 8,000 feet above the site before the hijackers’ demands were met.

The most important barrier against the release of radioactivity in the event of an aircraft strike on a nuclear power plant is the containment building and its missile shield. Current NRC Chairman Dale Klein has said "Nuclear power plants are inherently robust structures that our studies show provide adequate protection in a attack by an airplane. The NRC has also taken actions that require nuclear power plant operators to be able to manage large fires or explosions—no matter what has caused them."

In addition, supporters point to large studies carried out by the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute that tested the protection of both reactor and waste fuel storage and found that they should be able to sustain a terrorist attack comparable to the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. Spent fuel is usually housed inside the plant's protected zone or a spent nuclear fuel shipping container stealing it for use in a attack would be extremely difficult. Exposure to the intense radiation would certainly quickly kill the attacker.