BEACH EROSION

Ja'Quayla Davis 2nd period science

BEACH EROSION

Unfortunately for beach lovers and owners of high-priced beach-front homes, coastal erosion in any form is usually a one-way trip. Man-made techniques such as beach nourishment—whereby sand is dredged from off-shore sources and deposited along otherwise vanishing beaches—may slow the process, but nothing short of global cooling or some other major geomorphic change will stop it altogether.

According to Stephen Leather man (“Dr. Beach”) of the National Healthy Beaches Campaign,beach erosion is defined by the actual removal of sand from a beach to deeper water offshore or alongshore into inlets, tidal shoals and bays. Such erosion can result from any number of factors, including the simple inundation of the land by rising sea levels resulting from the melting of the polar ice caps.

Leather man cites U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that between 80 and 90 percent of the sandy beaches along America’s coastlines have been eroding for decades. In many of these cases, individual beaches may be losing only a few inches per year, but in some cases the problem is much worse. The outer coast of Louisiana, which Leather man refers to as “the erosion ‘hot spot’ of the U.S.,” is losing some 50 feet of beach every year.

Of particular concern is the effect climate change, which not only causes sea levels to rise but also increases the severity and possibly the frequency of harsh storms, has on beach erosion. “While sea level rise sets the conditions for landward displacement of the shore, coastal storms supply the energy to do the ‘geologic work’ by moving the sand off and along the beach,” writes Leather man on his Dr.Beach.org“Therefore, beaches are greatly influenced by the frequency and magnitude of storms along a particular shoreline.”

main regions/ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coastal_erosion)

•Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land and the removal of beach or dune sediments by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or high winds (see also beach evolution). Waves, generated by storms, wind, or fast moving motor craft, cause coastal erosion, which may take the form of long-term losses of sediment and rocks, or merely the temporary redistribution of coastal sediments; erosion in one location may result in accretion nearby. The study of erosion and sediment redistribution is called 'coastal morph dynamics'. It may be caused by hydraulic action, abrasion , impact and corrosion.

•On non-rocky coasts, coastal erosion results in dramatic (or non-dramatic) rock formations in areas where the coastline contains rock layers or fracture zones with varying resistance to erosion. Softer areas become eroded much faster than harder ones, which typically result in landforms such as tunnels, bridges, columns, and pillars. Also abrasion commonly happens in areas where there are strong winds, loose sand, and soft rocks. The blowing of millions of sharp sand grains creates a sandblasting effect. This effect helps to erode, smooth and polish rocks. The definition of abrasion is grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through the mechanical action of other rock or sand particles.

what wildfire is most issued? http://www.climatecentral.org/news/coastal-cities-fight-beach-erosion-19324

Beaches are facing off against a changing climate, and they’re losing ground. Literally.

Waves, currents, storms and people all move the sand that make beaches, well, beaches. But a combination of rising sea levels, strong coastal and coastal development means that sandy shorelines are increasingly disappearing, leaving the millions who live there facing major challenges in a warming world.

how wildfire is most issued? http://www.climatecentral.org/news/coastal-cities-fight-beach-erosion-19324

“Sea level rise of one foot or a foot and a half per century is basically inundating and drowning the shoreline,” Norbert Psuty, professor of coastal geomorphology at Rutgers University, said.

A common solution to beach erosion is beach nourishment, a process that pumps sand from dredging ships offshore to replace the lost sand on the beach. But this process is time consuming and costly and often needs to be repeated every few years to maintain the beach.

how does wildfires affect health? http://news.discovery.com/earth/weather-extreme-events/will-more-wildfires-combust-our-health-150828.htm

Wildfires have charred over 7.6 million acres in dramatic blazes in the United States so far this year, but that may not be so unusual in coming years: The risk of similar “very large” wildfires is expected to increase sixfold by mid-century, according to a new study from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.Smoke, which billows far from the fire’s source, is known to be dangerous to the lungs and heart, although many details on exactly how wildfires impact the body’s systems are still emerging.

For example, a study published earlier this month reviewed medical records over a two-month span of raging wildfires in Australia, noting a jump of 6.9 percent in cardiac arrests outside of hospitals. And it’s been established that they exacerbate asthma and other respiratory problems.

Although they say more studies are needed, researchers believe the culprit to be particles so tiny, 2.5 thousandths of a millimeter in diameter, they’re typically invisible.

how does wildfires affect our government? http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/research/fire/fire-effects.shtml

Wildfire is a part of nature. It plays a key role in shaping ecosystems by serving as an agent of renewal and change. But fire can be deadly, destroying homes, wildlife habitat and timber, and polluting the air with emissions harmful to human health. Fire also releases carbon dioxide- a key greenhouse gas—into the atmosphere. Fire’s effect on the landscape may be long-lasting. Fire effects are influenced by forest conditions before the fire and management action taken or not taken after the fire.

Scientists with the Pacific Northwest Research Station are conducting a range of studies pertaining to fire effects on the environment.

who or what causes wildfires to occur? http://www.nps.gov/fire/wildland-fire/learning-center/fire-in-depth/wildfire-causes.cfm

Wildfire Causes Wildfires can be caused by nature—like lava or lightning—but most are caused by humans. Humans and Wildfire As many as 90 percent of wildland fires in the United States are caused by humans. Some human-caused fires result from campfires left unattended, the burning of debris, negligently discarded cigarettes and intentional acts of arson. The remaining 10 percent are started by lightning or lava.Nature and Wildfire Lightning is described as having two components—leaders and strokes. The leader is the probing feeler sent from the cloud. The return streaks of light are a series of strokes that produce the actual lightning bolt or flash that we see. There are two types of lightning—cold lightning and hot lightning. Cold lightning is a return stroke with intense electrical current but of relatively short duration. Hot lightning has currents with less voltage, but these occur for a longer period of time. Fires are usually started by unusually long-lasting hot lightning bolts.

any solutions and how we prevent them? http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-effects-and-solutions-of-wildfires.php

Solutions to Wildfires

1. Make sure you are following all of the local regulations and laws regarding burning fires during various times of day, year, and what materials and substances are permitted to be burned. If you do not see a sign with the rules find a park ranger or someone close by and keep a list of the rules and regulations on hand.

2. Keep up to date with the weather forecast so you are sure not to burn any substances while there are high winds or other treacherous conditions. Certain areas are more prone to wildfires than others so make sure that you check with the area to see if they are more at risk than other areas. The Wildland Fire Assessment System will give you an updated map on which areas are more at risk. Weather is one of the biggest reasons why wildfires occur. Always keep in mind the weather before you ever even plan your trip.

3. Only light fires in areas that are easily controlled locations. Make sure when you are creating fire pits or other fires that you are doing so in areas that are controlled and fires cannot spread into other areas. A fire will need to be contained so that it will be easy to put out especially if a dangerous situation would arise.

4. Do not burn any materials that are combustible or unusual in nature. Do not throw garbage onto campfires or any other materials that should not be burned. You should only be using materials that are organic such as leaves, woods, or yard waste. If you put unusual materials into a fire it is only going to make the fire spread at a rapid rate which causes more problems for the area you are in.

5. If you are a cigarette smoker it is important not to smoke cigarettes where you are not supposed to. If you do smoke you need to make sure that you put your cigarette out completely before disposing of it. Under no circumstances should you throw cigarettes onto the ground. Make sure they are completely put out and dispose of them properly. Most camping and picnic areas do not allow smoking so if you are going to smoke you need to know the rules beforehand.

6. Teach your children the rules and safety precautions of camping and being outdoors. Make sure they know to stay away from fires and to always allow an adult to start and put out fires. Many wildfires are caused by unattended children near fires. Teaching them the ways of nature could make all of the difference.

Wildfires are an unfortunate occurrence but they can be prevented. Learn the rules of the area in which you are camping in and make sure you are following them explicitly. They are extremely dangerous and cause quite a bit of dangerous to our land and the habitat of many creatures. Following the rules could save the lives and homes of many people and blessed creatures that are on this earth. Humans are the number one cause of wildfires and can be the number one solution as well. Be the solution and know the rules.

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