Espanol Y El Cerebro

(Spanish and the Brain)

Laterialization :

  • younger ages use same parts of the brain to learn multiple languages
  • when each side of the brain is used to learn
  • completed by puberty


Young learners before the age of 5 are considered native speakers.

Advantages to being a Younger Learner :

  • more likely to develop a native accent
  • less to learn to be considered proficient
  • more likely to receive comprehensible input

Advantages to being an Older Learner :

  • can consciously use strategies to aid learning
  • has knowledge from Language 1 to use
  • has greater control over input

Proficiency :


  • includes grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic competence



BICS : Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills


  • 2-3 years ; basic questions and sentences
  • 4-10 years ; ability to read, write, speak, and listen at an academic level

Early Speech Production

Characteristics :

  • can understand more than can produce
  • can produce one or two more words at a time
  • learn questions and how to answer them
  • good skills of reading and writing are transferrable

Factors that Affect L2 (language #2

  • age (younger/older ?)
  • motivation (really motivated or just ehh ?)
  • access to the language (studying ? listening to other people speak it ? how often ?)
  • personality (positive or negative outlook ?)
  • first language development (strong, mediocre, weak ?)
  • quality of instruction (good or bad instructor ?)
  • cognitive ability