To Kill A Mockingbird Assignment

Samantha Giordano

Chapter 12



Calpurnia changes and develops by the way she handles certain situations with Jem and Scout. Now that the children are getting older, she learned that she has to talk and explain things differently from when they were younger. Her dominat character traits are helpful, kind, rough and wise as shown through the quote in chapter 12 " Baby, I just cant help it if Mister Jem's growing up... we'll find lots of things to do in here'' (pg.115).This shows that Calpurnia is comforting Scout as she's upset about her brother growing up. The quote Jem had said "Cant anybody take a bath in this house without the whole family lookin?" (pg.117) shows that Calpurnia took no ifs, ands and buts with Jems attitude and still helped him in the shower. These traits are important to the novel because they help Scout and Jem to grow up to become nice, mature young adults. Calpurnia acts as a loving, mother figure for both the children and as a result Scout learns how to spell and Jem learns proper manners because of Calpurnia's teachings.

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About the photo

This is a picture of Jem, Scout and Calpurnia. This picture is showing the loving, caring Calpurnia, helping out Scout after Jem and her had gotten into a fight. The 'Mother Figure' Calpurnia is there to help solve there problems while giving Scout something to occupy her mind from her fight with Jem.

Scout (Jean Louise Finch)

Scout becomes respectful and learn how to be polite to all people no matter how rude they are. Scout tries to change the way she reacts and how/what she says but this is really challenging for her. Her dominating traits are relentless, stubborn and loving. These traits are important to the novel because for instance, in Chapter 15 Scout helped Atticus by being relentless when Mr. Cunningham wouldn't answer her questions. "Hey Mr. Cunningham, how's your entailment gettin' along?"(pg.153) Scout said. If Scout hadn't been as relentless than she had been, then Atticus and the prisoner Tom Robinson would have been in a great deal of trouble. This is also showing how Scout is loving towards her father. She didn't want anything to happen to him and then decided to come up with a diversion so Mr. Cunningham and the rest of the gang would leave him alone." How are we going to sing it if there aint any hymn-book?" (pg.120) Scout had said while interrupting Reverend Sykes from talking up on the altar. This is showing how she cant keep quiet for a very long time and how she has a lot of questions that she wants to be answered.

Jem ( Jeremy Atticus Finch)

Jem Finch is a kind, honest boy that loves his sister and will do anything for his family. In chapter 12, Jem had started to change and develop. Jem had just turned 12 and he had changed from a nice boy to becoming difficult to live with, and moody as he was beginning to slowly start growing up. His name (Jem) that everyone calls him has turned into Mister Jem, as he is growing up and reaching the age of maturity. He has become smarter and he takes less interest in " children games" such as tag and he would rather read or play sports. His dominat character traits is strong and caring. He can control Scout with his powerful voice and actions that let him get his way. These traits are important to the novel because in Chapter 28 when Scout and Jem got attacked by Mr. Ewell, Scout gets stuck in a tree and while Jem was getting attacked, he grabbed Scout and broke her free from the tree. If he was not strong nor caring, he wouldn't have grabbed Scout and force her to run.

Atticus Finch

Atticus Finch is the father of Scout and Jem. He is very well known lawyer that was dealing with a hard case on a black worker named Tom Robinson. Atticus is not present during this chapter but, he is still a very important person in this novel. Atticus' main character traits are he's very busy and a very intelligent man that tries to take care of his family the best that he can. He is a very intelligent man becuause he has a very successful job, and he is a very good reader. Everyone thought that he was only "book smart" but as shown through chapter 10 when there was a wild rabbis infested dog, Atticus was the one to kill it. This shows that Atticus can do more than just read and be "book smart". Atticus shows the trait of caring because he is always trying to help out his children all throughput the book. He treats them well, and answers any questions that they might have. For example, he was told not to teach Scout any more reading because she knew more than the class did but, in the end he still read to her and improved her reading skills.
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About the photo

This photo is showing Scout and Atticus together out on the front porch. Atticus is reading to Scout as he is trying to get her to read and understand new words and different types of vocabulary. This was a nightly routine for them both where Scout got to spend a little bit of time with her father.


The main themes that are present in chapter 12 are colour discrimination, patience and helping each other out. Colour discrimination is shown through Lula when she gets irritated by the fact that there's white children (Jem and Scout) coming into a black church. Harper Lee might have talked about colour discrimination in this book because the time period that this book takes place in, is around the time when whites where controlling the blacks. She wants us to receive the message that a lot of colour discrimination occurred during this time and how bad it actually was. She first developed the theme of colour discrimination from the start of chapter 1 when we met Calpurnia (the black maid) and this continues throughout the chapters with Tom Robinson. He was a black worker that was accused of rapping an Ewell and people believed that he did it because he was black. Patience is another big part in this chapter as shown though Scout and Reverend Sykes. Scout asked Calpurnia after church about the Tom Robinson case and what rape was. When Calpurnia didn't answer her question on rape she didn't fuss or get irritated she just waited until Atticus told her. Reverend Sykes shows patience when Scout was being annoying and asking questions about the church and there the books where while Reverend Sykes was talking. Reverend could have been rude about it and thrown her out the church but he didn't. All he did was he said " Shush" and continued what he was talking about. Lee includes this in her novel to show the true meaning of family and helping each other out. She is portraying what a family back in the day would be like while now days families lack patience and lack helping people out.

Literary Devices

Dialogue - Dialogue is a conversation between 2 or more people in this case during chapter 12 there was dialogue between Calpurnia and Scout. On there way home from the church Scout was asking Calpurnia about the Tom Robinson case and what rape was.

Calpurnia and Lula- Calpurnia and Lula had a small back to back conversation about how white people where not welcome in there church. Calpurnia responded with attitude that all are welcome and Lula left them alone for the rest of the time being but, she was not happy with the children being there.

Pathos- Pathos is a quality that causes people to feel sympathy and sadness. In chapter 12 this took place in the church when Reverend Sykes was counting up all the donation money. As he finished counting all the coins he said " This is not enough, we must have ten dollars, you know what its for- Helen cant leave those children to work while Tom is in jail" (pg.122). Reverend Sykes is trying to make everyone feel sad and upset and make them donate more money to help out Helen. He gets someone to close up the doors and wait until people donate more money. He got his way and everyone donated enough money to help Helen out.

Pathos was also shown when both Jem and Scout walked up to the church. Scout had described the church as unceiled and unpainted along with walls that had unlighted kerosene lamps that hung on brass brackets and pince benches that worked as pews. By the building so poor and old, it might make people sad and want to donate and contribute to helping to fix up the church.

Simile- is a comparison between 2 unlike things using the words like or as to connect them. On page 117 Scout says that Calpurnia used so much starch in her dress it came up like a tent when she sat down. This is a simile because it compares her dress to being as tall and large as a tent due to the amount of starch on her dress.

Another example of a simile used in chapter 12 is when Jem says that its like we are going to Mardi Gras. Jem is comparing Scout and his fancy clothes to a fancy party. Calpurnia is making everyone dress up nicely because how the children dress is a reflection on how she works and how she takes care of the children so she wants them to dress well.

Why Harper lee used these literacy devices

Lee uses these literary devices at this point (chapter 12) in the novel because now the book is just starting to pick up and its starting to make sense as it is almost the half way point of the book. She's showing a sad time in the chapters and then how it will become a happy time.Dialogue is used in this chapter often as well as the rest of the chapters in this book because every book needs diologue to show what is happening and how each character is responding and reacting to the other characters questions and when there talking . Lee uses similes in chapter 12 to show readers to what extent Calpurnia went to, to make sure the children looked nice and clean. Many people when going to church dress up formally but, Calpurnia went way beyond formal wear.
How to Identify Ethos, Logos and Pathos by Shmoop

Reason for the creative piece and for the video

For my creative piece, I decided to draw a picture of what a black church would look like during this time period that occurs during this book. In front of the church is Calpurnia, Scout and Jem and what they where thinking about as they where walking into this poor, black church. I chose this section of chapter 12 because it was a transition on how black people live and pray compared to the rich, white people. It might have been different for Scout and Jem and that is why I wanted to re create this scene.

I chose to use this video for my video portion of this project because in this book there contains Pathos which is very common in all books but, I feel like we seem to overlook it or we are already used to it and so we dont think about it much. I wanted to show the difference between Pathos, Ethos and logos as Pathos was used during this chapter (chapter 12).

Significant Quotes

"How'd you and Mister Jem like to come to church with me tomorrow?''

Speaker: Calpurnia

Spoken to: Scout

Analysis: The importance of this quote is to show how welcoming and mother-like Calpurnia is towards the children. Calpurnia thinks that its important for the children to worship and stay close to there God as well as gain some new views on the world outside of the "white" part of town. In Calpurnia's neighbourhood (black neighbourhood) they have church differently and she wants them to see how different people worship the same God. This was when Atticus was out of town and Calpurnia was in charge of the children. she wants them to stay occupied and learn something knew at the same time.

" Brethren and sisters, we are particularly glad to have company with us this morning. Mister and Miss Finch. You all know their father. Before I begin I will read some announcements"

Speaker: Reverend Sykes

Spoken to: the whole church

Analysis: The importance of this quote is that Reverend Sykes shows the meaning of welcoming new people into the church. He welcomes white children into a black people church. This makes the children feel more comfortable and interested in their God. All are welcome in the kingdom of God no matter who you are, no one should be judged.

"Its not necessary to tell all you know. Its not ladylike- in the second place, folks dont like to have somebody around knowin' more than they can do but keep your mouth shut or talk their language"

Speaker: Calpurnia

Spoken to: Scout

The importance of this quote is to show that you dont have to go and tell everyone about your problems or what you know about them. This was a learning lesson for Scout as she liked to bud into peoples business and ask questions that didn't involve her. This quote is also showing that only women cant talk and ask questions about peoples life but, men can. as said in the above quote, it says that its not ladylike to let people know that you know more than you should be knowing.