Cause: Issac Newton was sitting under a tree when an apple fell from a tree. And he wondered how the velocity can change from zero position to moving. Through observation Newton figured out the a force has to act on an object for it to move which is Newtons 2nd law. He called this force gravity.
Characteristics: He invented calculus and provided a clear understanding of optics. Also published the book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which is Latin for