Theodore Roosevelt


Born in New York City on October 27, 1858, Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was governor of New York before becoming U.S. vice president. At age 42, Teddy Roosevelt became the youngest man to assume the U.S. presidency after President William McKinley was assassinated in 1901. He won a second term in 1904. Known for his anti-monopoly policies and ecological conservationism, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for his part in ending the Russo-Japanese War. He died in New York on January 6, 1919.

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Leadership- (A) Roosevelt’s Square Deal domestic program included a promise to battle large industrial combinations, or trusts that threatened to restrain trade. In 1902, his government brought success under the previously ineffective Sherman Antitrust Act against the Northern Securities Company. Also, the influence we have today started with Roosevelt. He thought it was important to have a strong foreign affair; he became involved with Latin America overseeing the negotiations, to preserve stability in the nation. TR also worked with congress to strengthen the navy. He believed it would restrain potential enemies from attacking the country. He had to protect the nation because in 1870-1900 the population nearly doubled because of the immigrants coming to work in the industrial factories.

Organization(A)- Roosevelt became the 26th president of the United States in September 1901, after the assassination of William McKinley. He brought a new energy to the White House, and won a second term in 1904. Roosevelt confronted the bitter struggle between management and labor head on and became known as the great “trust buster” for his strenuous efforts to break up industrial combinations under the Sherman Antitrust Act. Also set aside 200 million acres of national forest for wildlife. TR was the first conservationist. Roosevelt used his presidential authority to issue executive orders to create 150 new national forests, increasing the amount of protected land from 42 million acres to 172 million acres. The President also created five national parks, eighteen national monuments, and 51 wildlife refuges.( Roosevelt, although being the youngest president, was the best prepared going into office. Entering office with a broad understanding of government, the legislative process, and with leadership experience.

Professionalism-(A)The Republican in New York threw their considerable support behind the returning war hero, helping Roosevelt defeat a popular Democratic candidate to win the governorship. Once elected, Roosevelt displayed his characteristic independence and unwillingness to buckle to the pressure of party bosses. Roosevelt was born into one of the wealthiest family in New York. But still known as a hero to the common man, and a threat to big businesses. Disregarding where he came from, he was always fair to the people. He always pushed the boundaries of his power, and he ordered the square deal, and back it with a "big stick". Also, as he said the united states being the "policeman" of the western hemisphere during the war going on in Europe. Wanting to join, TR set out to petition a group that resembled the "rough riders", but failed doing so. His presidency endowed the progressive movement with credibility, lending the prestige of the White House to welfare legislation, government regulation, and the conservation movement.

Contributions-(A) Roosevelt won a Nobel Peace Prize for his negotiations to end the Russo-Japanese War and spearheaded the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal. In 1903, he helped Panama secede from Colombia in order to facilitate the beginning of construction on the Panama Canal, which he later claimed as his greatest accomplishment as president. TR's main concern, and main accomplishments was conserving federal land, creating federal protection for almost 230 million acres of land, 150 national forests, 51 federal bird reservations, five national parks, and 18 national monuments. He supported government regulations to acquire social and economical justice. The desire to make society more fair and equal, with economic possibilities for all Americans, started from the base Roosevelt's program.

Presidential Minute With Theodore Roosevelt - 90sec

William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on September 15, 1857. He followed his his family into law and was on track to be a career jurist, on his way to his dream job of sitting on the Supreme Court, he was sidetracked for a term as the 27th U.S. president by his wife and Theodore Roosevelt. Taft finally achieved his dream of being elected chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1921, becoming the only person to have served both as a chief justice and president. He died in Washington, D.C., on March 8, 1930.
Presidential Minute With William Howard Taft - 90sec

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Leadership-(B) Taft showed great leadership, and responsibility. During some time of his presidency he focused on trust busting, and doubled the amount of trusts broken than TR. But his main focus was the expansion of the U.S. Creating the dollar diplomacy, which was designed to designed to encourage U.S. investments in South and Central American, the Caribbean, and the Far East. He used government officials to expand and promote the sale of mostly industrial goods, and military hardware. Taft's trials and errors of designing a new look for the U.S. foreign policy was unsuccessful, and trade with China and other foreign exports actually dropped while Taft was in office. One important thing Taft did was get the county of Honduras out of debt by persuading U.S. banks to give them loans. Also, he sent 2,700 U.S. marines to stabilize Nicaragua's conservative, pro-U.S. regime when rebels threatened to overthrow its government.

Organization-(A)When William Howard Taft took office in 1909, many people believed he would continue the policies of President Theodore Roosevelt. His main concern regarding reform was to create an outline for administering a reform agenda. His view of executive leadership was primarily focused on administering rather than a legislative agenda. During his presidency, Congress passed many reform legislation. In one of his first acts in office, Taft called for a session of Congress to reform tariff law through reduced rates. He also passed the Mann-Elkins Act of 1910, which empowered the ICC to have jurisdiction to cover telephones, telegraphs, and radio. Also, it set rates for railroads. By 1911, , Taft began to back away from his antitrust efforts, hurt by the criticism of his conservative business supporters and unsure about the long effect of trust-busting on the national economy.

Professionalism-(C) William Howard Taft had a tough role as president, trying to live up to the name of the former president TR. It was not a benefit to him that he had little political experience, also his skills were very little. But Taft approach was strong. He wanted to protect American trade and investments in Asia and Latin America. He believed a strong economic base was essential in the American interest. Even though Tafts policy was economically based he still intervened military with foreign countries.

Contributions-(A) Taft had a quite successful Presidency even though we viewed it as a unsuccessful. He is the only president to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. His administration initiated 80 antitrust suits and Congress submitted to the states amendments for a Federal income tax and the direct election of Senators. Also, a postal savings system was established, and the Interstate Commerce Commission was directed to set railroad rates. Taft alienated many Republicans who later formed the Progressive Party. A trade agreement with Canada, which Taft pushed through Congress, would have pleased eastern advocates of a low tariff, but the Canadians rejected it. He further repelled Progressives by upholding his Secretary of the Interior, accused of failing to carry out Roosevelt's conservation policies.

Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson was born on December 28, 1856, in Stanton, Virginia. He spent his youth in the South, seeing the fatalities of the Civil War and its aftermath. A dedicated scholar and enthusiastic orator, he earned multiple degrees before embarking on a university career. He spent two years as governor of New Jersey before becoming the two-term 28th president of the United States in 1912. Wilson saw America through World War I, negotiating the Versailles Treaty and crafting a League of Nations. He suffered his second stroke during the last year of his presidency and died three years after leaving office, on February 3, 1924, with sweeping reforms for the middle class, voting rights for women and precepts for world peace as his legacy.
Presidential Minute With Woodrow Wilson - 90sec

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Leadership-(B) Wilson's approach was a moral approach, he based his ideas on democratic ideals, rather than economic ideals or the use of force. Wilson believed in self determination, which was the right of the people to pick there own government without influence. Although his ways where looked at as the right thing to do, he still intervened with country's more than Roosevelt or Taft, due to oil in Latin America. Wilson left an enduring legacy. His transformation of the basic project of American foreign policy from isolation to internationalism. His success in making the Democratic Party a "party of reform," and his ability to shape and mobilize public opinion mobilized the modern presidency. Under his leadership, Congress enacted the most cohesive, complete, and elaborate program of federal oversight of the nation's economy up to that time: banking reform under the auspices of the Federal Reserve System, tariff reduction, federal regulation of business, support for labor and collective bargaining, and federal aid to education and agriculture.

Organization-(B) Woodrow came into office with little foreign policy experience. He believed to base his policy's on moral principles rather than the selfish materialism that he believed had animated other presidents programs. In 1915, Wilson responded to chronic revolution in Haiti by sending in American marines to restore order. also, in the the Dominican Republic in 1916. The military occupations that followed failed to create order in creating democratic states. In 1916, Wilson practiced an old-fashioned form of imperialism by buying the Virgin Islands from the colonial master of Denmark for $25 million.

Professionalism- (B)Wilson had proposed a program of military readiness as early as 1915. This helped the Navy move more quickly to help the British fleet in destroying the threat of German submarines to Allied shipping by late 1917 during WWI. The Army needed more time to prepare before it was ready for battle. Congress passed the Selective Service Act in May of 1917, and eventually 2.8 million men were drafted, about 72 percent of the entire Army.

Contributions-(A) President Wilson decided Americans to remain strictly neutral,because he believed that the underlying cause of the war was the militant nationalism of the major European powers, as well as the ethnic hatreds that existed in much of Central and Eastern Europe. But that soon ended when the Germans started to use submarines for warfare. Under his leadership, Congress enacted the most cohesive, complete, and elaborate program of federal oversight of the nation's economy up to that time: banking reform under the auspices of the Federal Reserve System, tariff reduction, federal regulation of business, support for labor and collective bargaining, and federal aid to education and agriculture. Mexico posed a special threa for Wilsonian diplomacy. Having been in revolution since 1899, Mexico came under the rule of the counterrevolutionary General Victoriano Huerta, who put a bloody authoritarian rule on the country. Most European nations welcomed the order and friendly climate for foreign investments that Huerta offered, but Wilson refused to recognize "a government of butchers" that obviously did not reflect the wishes of the Mexican people. His stance encouraged anti-Huerta forces in northern Mexico led by Venustiano Carranza.