The city of Paris, France

The city of lights

A problem in the city

If you watch KY3, Kolor news network or KTTS, you probably heard about the attack on paris. It was a tragic that happened November 14,2015. 130 people died that day, On the bright side The city of lights learned to trust.

The French Revolution

Some causes to the french revolution is
  • Cultural: The Enlightenment philosophy desalinized the authority of the King and the Church, and promoted a new society based on "reason" instead of traditions.
  • Social: The emergence of an influential bourgeoisie which was formally part of the Third Estate (commoners) but had evolved into a caste with its own agenda and aspired to political equality with the clergy (First Estate) and the aristocracy (Second Estate).
  • Financial: France's debt, aggravated by French involvement in the American Revolution, led Louis XVI to implement new taxations and to reduce privileges. The effect to the french revolution is The French Revolution, though it seemed a failure in 1799 and appeared nullified by 1815, had far-reaching results. In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by the Code Napoléon. The Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars tore down the ancient structure of Europe, hastened the advent of nationalism, and inaugurated the era of modern, total warfare.

Pain au Raisin

Prepare the dough: Melt the 3 tablespoons butter in a small saucepan over low heat. Allow the butter to cool to room temperature. It should be warm to the touch.

In a small bowl, dissolve the yeast in the cold water. Place the flour, salt, sugar, milk, and melted butter in the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the paddle attachment. Set the mixer on medium speed and mix just until the ingredients are dispersed, about 5 seconds. Add the dissolved yeast and beat on medium-high speed until the dough is well combined and no longer sticks to the sides of the bowl, about 1 minute. If the dough is too soft, add more flour 1 tablespoon at a time until it is firmer. (The dough is too soft when it cannot hold its shape.) If the dough is too hard, add cold water 1 tablespoon at a time until it has softened. (The dough is too hard when it is difficult to mix in the mixer.) Remove the dough from the mixing bowl. If the dough is slightly sticky and ropy, knead it with your hands for about 30 seconds, until it is smooth. Pat it into a ball. Place the dough on a lightly floured baking sheet, cover with plastic wrap, and let it proof at room temperature for about 30 minutes.

Place the dough on a lightly floured work surface and roll it out to an 8 by 15-inch rectangle about 1/4-inch thick. Wrap the rectangle in plastic wrap and refrigerate for 2 hours. The cold retards the rising process, allowing a slow fermentation to help develop the flavor of the dough.

Remove the dough from the refrigerator, unwrap the rectangle, and place it with a long side facing you on a lightly floured work surface. Spread the softened butter evenly over the right two thirds of the dough. Incorporate the butter by folding the (butterless) left third of the dough over the center, Then fold the right third of the dough to the left, to resemble a folded letter. Roll this out into another 10 by 30-inch rectangle about 1/8-inch thick. Fold each short end of the dough to the middle so they meet but do not overlap. Then fold one half over the other half and, if necessary, rotate the dough so that the seam is on your right. Wrap the folded dough in plastic wrap and let it rest in the refrigerator for a minimum of 2 hours.

Remove the dough from the refrigerator, unwrap it, and place on a lightly floured work surface. Roll it into a 10 by 30-inch rectangle and turn it so a long side faces you. Give the dough a single fold by folding the left third of the dough over the center, then fold the right third of the dough to the left. Now the dough should resemble a folded letter. Wrap in plastic wrap and let it rest in the refrigerator for 30 minutes.

Remove the dough from the refrigerator and place it on a lightly floured work surface. Roll out the dough into a 10 by 36-inch rectangle about 1/4-inch thick. Keep the thickness even and the edges straight. This will make it easier to cut the croissants or pain au chocolat.

For pain au chocolat: With a sharp chef's knife, cut the dough into 3 1/2 by 4 1/2-inch rectangles. Lay each rectangle on a lightly floured work surface, with a long side facing you, and place about 1/2 tablespoon of the chopped chocolate in the upper third of each one. Fold that third of the dough over the chocolate. Place about another 1/2 tablespoon of the chocolate along one seam of the folded dough. Fold the bottom third of the dough over the chocolate. (At this stage, they can be frozen for up to 1 week if well wrapped in plastic wrap. Thaw on a parchment covered baking sheet overnight in the refrigerator before proceeding.)

Turn over the pain au chocolat so the seams face down. This will keep them from opening as they bake. Place them on a parchment covered baking sheet; spaced about 2 inches apart. Loosely cover the baking sheet with plastic wrap and allow the pain au chocolat to proof at room temperature until they have doubled in size and appear light and full of air, about 1 1/2 to 3 hours.

For the Danish with apricots or cherries: Roll the dough into a 10 by 36-inch rectangle. Roll up the dough into a long cylinder that is about 2 inches in diameter. Use a sharp knife to make cut 1 1/2-inch slices and lay flat to see the spirals. Place on a parchment covered baking sheet. Allow the Danish to proof at room temperature until they have doubled in size and appear light and full of air; about 1 1/2 to 3 hours. Use your fingers to make an indentation/pocket in the center of the dough. Add a dollop of almond cream to the center of each Danish. Top with fruit (I used canned apricots halves and cherries) that have been drained on a wire rack placed over a parchment paper-covered baking sheet. Place the apricot half cut side down onto the almond cream. Or use 3 to 4 cherries.

Almond Cream:
Place the butter, sugar, and almond flour in a medium-size mixing bowl and beat with an electric mixer set on medium speed until light and fluffy, about 5 minutes. The mixture will be dry and sandy until the butter begins to incorporate. Add the egg and mix well. Use a rubber spatula to scrape down the side of the bowl as needed. The egg is well incorporated when the mixture is light and creamy, about 3 minutes. It is important to allow time for this air to beat in, otherwise, the almond cream will be too heavy.

Add the flour and beat on low speed just until it is no longer visible, about 30 seconds.

Pour the almond cream into an airtight container and store in the refrigerator for up to 5 days. Allow it to come to room temperature before using and beat it lightly with an electric mixer set on medium speed until it returns to its initial volume and is once again light in texture and color.

Yield: 1 3/4 cups Preparation time: 15 minutes

Hydrated Raisins:
Place the raisins in a mixing bowl or glass jar and add water so that it covers the raisins by at least 1/2-inch. Stir in the rum or flavored alcohol. Cover with plastic wrap and place in the refrigerator for 24 hours. It is even better to allow the raisins to hydrate for 2 to 3 days. You can keep them in the refrigerator for a few weeks. When you are ready to use them, strain the amount that you need through a fine-mesh sieve before adding them to the recipe.

Yield: 1 cup Preparation time: 24 hours

The Eiffel tower

The eiffel tower is 984' tall. It is made out of iron and painted a red-brown color. It is been standing 41 years. It was built by Stephen Sauvestre and Gustave Eiffel. The Eiffel tower was one of the tallest buildings in the world.

The Eiffel Tower vs. The Statue of Liberty

The Eiffel tower has been standing for 41 years. On the other hand the statue of Liberty has been standing for 122 years. The Eiffel tower is made out of iron and the statue of Liberty is made out of copper. Some similarities' are both were designed in France. Also both of these structures were built by Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel.

Quiz

-How many years has the Eiffel tower been standing?

-What is one of the causes for the french revolution

-What happened the night of November 14, 2015

-who built both the Eiffel tower and the Statue of Liberty

-how long is the preparation time for the Pain au raisn

Inside the eiffel tower