Assigned Reaction

Silver Nitrate and Calcium Chloride

By: Sam Sullivan

Silver Nitrate and Calcium Chloride yields Silver (I) Chloride and Calcium Nitrate

This type of reaction is Double Replacement because it's a chemical reaction where the cation and anion switch to form two new compounds depending on where they are on the reactivity series.

2AgNO3 (aq) + CaCl2 (aq) --> 2AgCl (s) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq)

The balanced equation is as shown. Balancing and equation is necessary to make sure the reaction happens correctly. You start by adding a coefficient of 2 in front of AgCl on the product side because there are two chlorine molecules on the reactant side. Next, You add a coefficient of 2 to AgNO3 on the reactant side because there are two molecules of Ag and two molecules of NO3 on the product side. The states of matter must be included with double replacement because a precipitate (solid) is formed. To find it, look on the chart on your periodic table.

Molar Mass

Later on, you will need to know the molar mass of all compounds in the equation. You can find them by looking on the periodic table and multiplying it by how many atoms of each element are present.

AgNO3 = 169.87g/mol

CaCl2 = 110.98g/mol

AgCl = 143.32g/mol

Ca(NO3)2 = 164.088g/mol

Mole to Mole Conversion

To start out, take the given from the question and put it in the first box marked Mole A. In this question, the given is 9.02 Moles of AgNO3. Then, we will use the coefficient of Mole A from the equation, which happens to be a 2. We put that in the bottom right box to cross out the units. Then, you put the coefficient of Mole B or CaCl2 in the top right box, which happens to be 1. Finally, you multiply by the top and divide by the bottom to get the answer, 4.51 Moles CaCl2.
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Mass to Mass Conversion

Start off with the given which is 12.1g of AgNO3. Then, use the molar mass of AgNO3 and put it at the bottom to cross out g AgNO3. On top of that there should be 1 mole of AgNO3. Next, Always use the coefficient from the equation and put the element that you used first at the bottom and the one you used second at the top. Then, Use the molar mass of the other compound and put it on top. The bottom will always be one in that box. Finally, multiply the top and divide by the bottom.

Limiting and Excess Reactant

Limiting Reactant is the reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the limiting reactant is consumed. While, the Excess Reactant is the reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when a reaction stops when the limiting reactant is completely consumed. The excess reactant remains because there is nothing with which it can react.

For limiting and excess reactant problems, it will usually have 2 givens so we will use the same formula from mass to mass conversions and the lesser product will determine the limiting reactant and the bigger product will determine the excess reactant. In this problem, AgNO3 was the limiting reactant while CaCl2 was the excess reactant because of the amount their respective products had.

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Theoretical yield

The Theoretical Yield is how much product will be created in ideal conditions. To determine theoretical yield, look at the answers to the problem we just solved above. It is the lesser product out of the two answers.

Percent Yield

The percent yield is the ratio between the actual yield and the theoretical yield multiplied by 100%. It indicates the percent of theoretical yield that was obtained from the final product in an experiment. It is represented by the equation:

Mass of Actual Yield x 100 = Percent Yield

Mass of Theoretical Yield

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Real world application

None found, probably only used for experiments in science class.