1920s Research Project

Haylee Ryals-Period 6

Red Scare: The Sacco and Vanzetti Case

The new threat is called communism, which is an ideology of economic equality through the elimination of private property. Communism was famously expressed by Karl Marx, center on the idea that inequality and suffering result from capitalism. Many people were scared of this because communism revolves around the idea that the government controls what a citizen owns.

Automobile 1: The Life and TImes of Henry Ford

He didn’t invent the auto-mobile, but Henry Ford pretty much invented the modern world, transforming transportation and bringing manufacturing and society along for the ride. Ford helped develop an infrastructure of dealer-franchisers, gas stations and better roads to support his cars. His great strength was the manufacturing process, not invention.

Automobile 2: The New World of Automobility

It made it possible to travel many miles in a day. Before the automobile, people in cities had to take streetcars (horse drawn) to get anywhere further than they could walk. People who lived out of town had to get to work on interurban railways, so suburbs were not really that popular. People who lived on farms or in small villages in the country would come into town maybe once a month in a horse-drawn cart to do their shopping, but a horse couldn't do more than 15 or 20 miles there and back. It wasn't much faster than walking. Cars made it possible for people to move 20-30 miles or more from the city and drive in to work everyday.

The Mass Media 1: Radio

Mass media such as newspapers had been around for years before the existence of radio. In fact, radio was initially considered a kind of disembodied newspaper. Newspapers had the potential to reach a wide audience, but radio had the potential to reach almost everyone. Neither illiteracy nor even a busy schedule impeded radio’s success—one could now perform an activity and listen to the radio at the same time. This unprecedented reach made radio an instrument of social cohesion as it brought together members of different classes and backgrounds to experience the world as a nation.

The Mass Media 2: The Birth of Movies and Movie Stars

Many performance venues had their own radio transmitters to broadcast live shows—for example, Harlem’s Cotton Club broadcast performances that CBS picked up and broadcast nationwide. Radio networks mainly played swing jazz, giving the bands and their leaders a widespread audience. Popular bandleaders including Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, and Tommy Dorsey and their jazz bands became nationally famous through their radio performances, and a host of other jazz musicians flourished as radio made the genre nationally popular. National networks also played classical music.

Changing Roles of Women

Were northern, urban, single, young, middle-class women. Many held steady jobs in the changing American economy. The clerking jobs that blossomed in the Gilded Age were more numerous than ever. By night, flappers engaged in the active city nightlife. They frequented jazz clubs and vaudeville shows. Speakeasies were a common destination, as the new woman of the twenties adopted the same carefree attitude toward prohibition as her male counterpart. Young women cut their hair to shoulder length. Hemlines of dresses rose dramatically to the knee. The cosmetics industry flowered as women used make-up in large numbers.

In some respects, they are a new kind of feminist, since they aggressively assert their social, professional, and sexual independence from men. Others think they are a disgrace to society because they are lazy pleasure-seekers who are only interested in drinking, partying, and flirting.

Evolution and The Scopes Trial

This raging conflict between religion and science, that so much characterized the Enlightenment, was part of the culture of the United States from its founding. The leaders of the American revolution incorporated the ideas of the Enlightenment, including a strict separation of church and state, into the Constitution of the United States.

Fighting Racism

Marcus Garvey and his organization, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), represent the largest mass movement in African-American history. Proclaiming a black nationalist "Back to Africa" message to bring whoever inherits African heritage to go back to their homeland. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States

Jazz Age 1

Jazz was born in New Orleans about 100 years ago (early 20th century), but its roots can be found in the musical traditions of both Africa and Europe. In fact, some people say that jazz is a union of African and European music. New Orleans was the perfect city for all of these elements to come together, as it was a port city (with people arriving from all parts of the world).

Jazz Age 2

Louis Armstrong was a trumpeter, bandleader, singer, soloist, film star and comedian. Considered one of the most influential artists in jazz history. An all-star virtuoso, he came to prominence in the 1920s, influencing countless musicians with both his daring trumpet style and unique vocals.

Painters of the Harlem Renaissance

Aaron Douglas was the Harlem Renaissance artist whose work best exemplified the 'New Negro' philosophy. He painted murals for public buildings and produced illustrations and cover designs for many black publications.

Poets of the Harlem Renaissance

Langston Hughes wrote novels, short stories and plays, as well as poetry, and is also known for his engagement with the world of jazz and the influence it had on his writing. Hughes refused to differentiate between his personal experience and the common experience of black America. He wanted to tell the stories of his people in ways that reflected their actual culture, including both their suffering and their love of music, laughter, and language itself.

Heroes of American Aviation

Amelia Earhart was perhaps the most famous female avaitar in American history. Amelia defied the conventional little girl behavior of the time by climbing trees, “belly-slamming” her sled to start it downhill, and by hunting rats with a .22 rifle. She also kept a scrapbook filled with newspaper clippings of women who had been successful in such predominantly male-oriented careers as the law

American Sports

Ruth, like most American folk heroes, was an uncompromising man. Like the dime novel outlaw-cowboy hero, Ruth possessed a rebellious nature that would not die down.Ruth loved baseball so much that he wanted expose children everywhere to the joys of the game. "I won't be happy until we have every boy in America between the ages of six and sixteen wearing a glove and swinging a bat,"Ruth said.

Organized Crime

A child from an Italian immigrant family, Al Capone, also known as "Scarface," rose to infamy as the leader of the Chicago mafia during the Prohibition era. Before being sent to Alcatraz Prison in 1931 from a tax evasion conviction, he had amassed a personal fortune estimated at $100 million and was responsible for countless murders. As Capone's reputation grew he still insisted on being unarmed as a mark of his status. But he never went anywhere without at least two bodyguards. He was even sandwiched between bodyguards when traveling by car.

Racism and Nativism in the 20s

In its second incarnation, the Klan moved beyond just targeting blacks, and broadened its message of hate to include Catholics, Jews and foreigners. The Klan promoted fundamentalism and devout patriotism along with advocating white supremacy. They blasted bootleggers, motion pictures and espoused a return to "clean" living. the Klan moved in many states to dominate local and state politics. The Klan devised a strategy called the "decade," in which every member of the Klan was responsible for recruiting ten people to vote for Klan candidates in elections.

Immigration Restriction

The Immigration Act of 1924 limited the number of immigrants allowed entry into the United States through a national origins quota. The quota provided immigration visas to two percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census. It completely excluded immigrants from Asia. The literacy test alone was not enough to prevent most potential immigrants from entering, so members of Congress sought a new way to restrict immigration in the 1920s.