Historical Globalization

To what extent should humanity in society react to the past?

Origin of Globalization

Where globalization truly began is still disagreed upon today. However it is agreed that trade was a large factor in initializing globalization in the past. This Silk Road was one way people claim globalization came about. Along with this the printing press and other technologies also contributed to where we are today.

The Silk Road

The Silk Road is one of the first large ways of international trade. The "road" stretched from china all the way to Europe or Mediterranean sea. It was over 8000 km long and allowed trade among many countries and regions. Allowing this trade was very important in the sharing of ideas and opinions among the people of the world. Many goods were sold such as silk, paper, spices, and a large commodity at the time pepper.v This spread of ideas encouraged the creation and revolution of technology. An example of these technologies include the printing press.
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Middle Class

The middle class was originally a very small part of the feudal system. The feudal system was that at that time you were born into your social class peasant peasant lord was a lord etc. So at that time wealth was by how much land you owned, that is until the middle class began to take off. They valued education because that is what taught them their trade which allowed them on the silk road to trade their creations with others and make money. This take off changed the wealth changed to money and goods such as the ones traded among the silk road.

New technology through spread of ideas

Technology is something in our lives that makes things easier for us. Through he spread of ideas and the connections of these ideas new technologies have the opportunity to be created.


Printing Press

The printing press was an invention by Johannes Gutenberg. It allowed the creation of books at a higher amount while cheaper. This revolutionized books as originally they were created by hand. This allowed the idea of individualism to be increased as with more books more people had the chance to read them and create their own well rounded opinion on that topic.

Imperialism

The one thing you must remember is that trade motivated imperialism. Imperialism is one country gaining more power by establishing control of economic and government policies from another country. Imperialism is something that has long term effects on any place it occurs.


Europe was one place who had very strong imperialistic beliefs. This relates to euro centrism they thought they were the best the highest nation, and the right to control the colonies due to superiority.

Mercantilism

Mercantilism is a rule strictly controlling trade. The way it works is by creating colonies in other parts of the world in order to trade with all parts of the world all maintaining the number one goal to fuel and get money for the home country. Of course though like everything has these colonies had two must follow rules.

1- No factories were allowed to be set up in a colony. Everything had to be manufactured or touched up in the home country.

2- You could not import goods from other countries other than your own.


In the 18th century people began going against mercantilism due too the higher taxes being placed on the colonies. They went against Britain their home country and split off creating their own country now known as the united states this split is known as the american revolution. The decline and rebel of mercantilism led to a rise in capitalism.

Capitalism

capitalism- the trading of goods through laws of supply and demand and competition rather than government control. The decline of mercantilism which means government having control over the trade of a colony increased the idea of this capitalism. Adam Smith who wrote the book "the wealth of nations" this book was on of the first things that really brought capitalism to life. This was wrote soon around the american revolution.

Slavery

Slavery has been occurring sing ancient Greece and the Aztecs. it is when a person is controlled by another person with no pay or reward. In the 16th century Europeans began capturing Africans from Africa and using them as slaves in America and Europe. Many slaves were branded, undernourished, and treated like nothing more then animals. The 3 kinds of slavery were those working to pay off debt, people kidnapped, as well as chattel slavery this is when a slaves children and their children are always going to be born slaves.

Grand Exchange

This exchange was the first truly international exchange. It involved the new found Americas crops and goods being transferred to Europe as well as Europe's luxuries going back to America. Like the Silk road this was a huge impact on the starting of globalization. The Grand exchange having such a positive effect resulted in more exploration. This exploration resulted in an increase of imperialism in these newly found countries.


In many cases these new crops were considered luxuries that only the rich could afford until they began growing in large quantities. This is when the prices fell and they became more of a common good.

Industrial Revolution

This was a huge jump in technology in Europe then was ahead of the rest of the world. They were able to travel faster and produce more goods, for a cheaper cost. Britain being the first country to industrialize they had a head start on the world, leading in industrial power.

Legacies

A legacy is anything from the past that is carried on today. This can include anything from monuments to stories to things as common as language. Two words that lead to certain legacies in certain groups are ethnocentrism and euro centrism.


Ethnocentrism- is a way of thinking that only focuses on ones race and culture. They believe that their culture is the only one with the "right" beliefs.


Euro centrism- is a form of ethnocentrism but focused on the European culture and those who believe only the Europeans perspective is correct. Due to the Europeans coming across and so called discovering Canada and attempting to assimilate the first nations euro centrism is still found in Canada today continuing on a legacy.


The ethnocentric views of Europe mixed with their imperialistic beliefs resulted in the taking over of the aboriginal people and not viewing them as equals to them. This is why we still have eurocanadian legacies today.

Scramble for Africa

The scramble for Africa was a direct result from imperialism and ethnocentrism. Many groups believed they were higher than the Africans and took control over it dividing Africa without Africa's knowledge whatsoever. Before this the slave trade began these peoples imperialistic views made them so blind to believe they were high enough to make the Africans do whatever they were told in harsh conditions with no rewards and never freedom.


King Leopold

Sparked the scramble for Africa. He took over the Congo sparking other European countries to control as much land as they could so king Leopold and others didn't get it first. Leopold somehow took over the Congo put all the people on the land to do his labor. With harsh machete punishments as well as murders he began the desolation of Africa from inside out without even setting foot in the country. All this were the steps into the Berlin conference.


Berlin Conference

This was a conference held in Berlin with many country leaders in attendance. From the united states to Russia to Portugal and many more. In a short dispute Africa was divided up among the countries and they all hurried off the Africa to establish their newly written control. So who was missing from this? In all of this Africa was no either included or even notified of this arrangement yet were expected to follow commands and simply fall into the countries orders. Because of this a small country called Rwanda had disagreements begin.

Rwandan Genocide

Rwanda had two main ethnic groups the Tutsi's and the Hutu's and for quite some time they lived among each other peacefully. That is until the Berlin conference when Germany gained control of Rwanda. The Germans favored the Tutsi's over the Hutu's claiming they resembled Europeans more than the Hutu's. This led to hatred between the two groups a legacy that continues on today. For many years through Britain gaining and losing control of Rwanda to Rwanda regaining independence the groups still despised each other leading to the gruesome Rwandan Genocide of 1994. After the President of Rwanda who was Hutu was shot down in his plane the Hutu saw it as the final straw and the opportunity to have a true reason to finally get back at the Hutu. They began slaughtering entire family's of Tutsi people as well as Hutu's who disagreed with the murders. Over 100 days nearly 1 million Hutu and Tutsi people were killed, one of the largest genocides ever recorded.


International Support on the Genocide


During the genocide many members of the united nations were present the only problem was they weren't aloud to help or protect anyone but themselves. Their job was to peace keep not peacemaker. essentially this meant they could see a little girl being raped and murdered just down the road but unless they were threatened they were told not to do anything about it. This remained the same until the genocide actually ended and the world sent people to go help and rebuild Rwanda. By this time women took up about 70 percent of the population because so many men were killed fighting. Also so many of these women had no where to go no husband to support them or had been raped or beaten. Meaning almost the entire Rwandan population had witnessed or been a part of the traumatizing violence occurring in those 100 days but we thought going in after to rebuild was help enough somehow.

Pierre Trudeau

in 1971 while Pierre Trudeau was the priminister of Canada he accepted the policy of multiculturalism as an official government policy. This policy rejected assimilation and accepted different cultures into society. Canada was the first country to become fully multicultural.


Pierre also created a policy called "white paper" this was created to abolish the Indian act due to the loss of culture and assimilation it had brought to the first nations people. Unfortunately it was very controversial because many argued it would cause the first nations to lose rights upheld in the Indian act. For this reason "white paper" was shut down.

Assimilation Methods of the first nations people

Indian Act- the original purpose for this act claimed to be to uphold rights of first nations, and stated who was considered status Indian. It told people who was and was not first nations. The problem with this act was that there were so many ways people could lose their status. Simply marrying someone who wasn't First Nation would lose your status. This caused many to forever lose their status making more and more considered to be eurocanadian and assimilating the first nations culture. This act still remains today but many amendments have been made to the original to fix the assimilation problem.


Residential Schools- Were boarding schools for First Nations children whose goals were to make them follow the ways and beliefs of European people. They wanted to completely get rid of the culture, traditions, and language of the aboriginal people and thought starting with the young generations would accomplish this for the future. The ways they assimilated them were often through cruel punishments such as beatings, rape, hard labor, and rotten food. Many didn't even receive and education and were forced to work outside even in harsh conditions. The children also were not aloud to see there parents as the Europeans feared it would re-spark their cultural beliefs and any language spoken that wasn't french or English resulted in consequences, severe consequences. This went on for several generations, the last school closed in 1994. Many people are still effected and trying to deal with the trauma and legacies to this day.


This is all related to what is called "the white mans burden" which is the white peoples belief that they had to make non-white people impart their culture. Many put it as "save the savages" and related to their eurocentric beliefs.

The Quiet Revolution

At one point the French believed the British was taking over there culture as didn't want to lose it. They believed they were being assimilated. This caused them to decide to revert back to there old ways completly. This decision led them to fall behind as the world continued to evolve. The quiet revolution was when they realized how they had fallen behind and decided to go back to more British ways and catch up with the world.

Oka Crisis

The oka crisis was a situation over a 9 hole golf course. You see the government and the town wished to expand it to an 18 hole golf course but the problem was expanding it would have put the gold course on Mohawk territory. This caused the Mohawk to fight back by putting up barriers, road blocks, protests, everything to keep their land. Eventually the army was even brought in to calm everything down. A big fight over a golf course.

Apartheid

An apartheid is an African word for separation or in this case the racial segregation enforced by the African government. The white people were put up top always and got more money towards every social program and everything in general. While the coloured or black people were put at the bottom and got absolutely nothing. The education was the worst though because often the coloured students would protest how much lower their education level is causing violence and at many times deaths of hundreds of children. This continued until apartheid was voted out and Nelson Mandela became president, with a coloured president segregation of blacks and whites was demolished.