# IPS Exam Experience

## Chapter 3.7

The Density of a Gas

1. Possible Errors:

1. remove stopper before tubing (V increases, D decreases)

2. hand doesn't seal the bottle when removing it (V increases, D decreases)

3. foil is not there for Mf (M increases, D increases)

4. takes too long to insert tubing (V decreases, D increases)

## Chapter 3.6

The Density of Liquids

1. Magnesium sulfate= Epsom salt

Possible Errors:

1. cylinder is contaminated

2. cylinder wet when massed

3. dry out cylinder AFTER its massed

4. liquid sticks to the side (volume decreases, density increases)

## Chapter 3.5

The Density of Solids

1. All have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together (sedimentary)

2. DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES= DIFFERENT DENSITIES

Possible Errors:

1. find volume of rock before its mass (mass will be greater, density will increase)

2. mix up the cubes

3. measure from end of the ruler (volume decreases, density increases)

Lab 3-5 Density of Solids

## Chapter 3.3

Density

1. D=M/V

2. Unit: g/cm3

3. Aluminum= 2.7 g

## Chapter 3.2

Mass and Volume

1. Objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass (regardless of its shape)

2. The mass of an object will double if its volume doubles

3. Objects that are made of DIFFERENT substances will NOT have the same mass

Possible Errors:

1. cylinder isn't fully submerged in H20

2. H20 splashes out of graduated cylinder (less volume)

3. aluminum cylinder is wet (more mass)

4. re-mass the same cylinder

Lab 3-2 Mass and Volume

## Chapter 3.1

Properties of Substances and Properties of Objects

1. Properties of Substances: identifies what the object is made out of

2. Properties of Objects: describes the object itself

## Chapter 3 Vocabulary

1. Characteristic Properties: properties that show differences between substances. Ex: density, boiling point, solubility, melting point.

2. Plateau: flat portion of a graph. Indicates no change in dependent variable (y-axis)

3. Phrase Diagram: graph that shows the changes in state of matter for any substance. Represents physical changes in substance.

4. Barometer: used to measure atmospheric air pressure. Contains a column of mercury and metric scale in sealed container.

5. Barometric Pressure: air pressure generated by the atmosphere.

6. Density: mass per unit volume of a substance. Unit of measure= g/cm3

## Law of Conservation of Mass

Notes:

1. In a closed system, mass will remain constant, regardless of the actions of processes inside the closed system

## Chapter 2.6

The Mass of a Gas

1. Possible Errors:

1. outside of bottle is wet during Mi

2. inside cap is wet

3. loosen cap-- H20 splashes out

4. cap not on tightly

Lab 2-6 Mass of Gas

## Chapter 2.5

The Mass of Copper and Sulfur

1. the sulfur melted very quickly

2. green smoky substance

3. bottom turned gooey brown

4. outside is green

5. a lot of condensation

Possible Errors:

1. shaking test tube (sulfur could stick to the side)

2. rubber sheet has a hole

3. stop heating before reaction ends

4. rubber sheet not on tight enough

2-5 Sulfer and Copper

## Chapter 2.4

The Mass of Ice and Water

1. Condensation= water vapor

2. When water vapor touches the cool bottle, it changes from gas to a liquid.

Possible Errors:

1. not wiping off condensation on outside (lead to a gain in mass)

2. shaking the bottle

3. cap not sealed on tight --- water evaporates

4. not letting ice fully melt

Lab 2-4

## Chapter 2.2

Histograms:

1. Historgram Rule: if data falls on a line, you graph it in the column to the RIGHT

## Chapter 2.1

The Mass of Dissolved Salt

1. Possible Errors

1. cleaning the pan between Mi and Mf

2. cap not tight (H20 leaves)

3. spill salt from cap into bottle

4. outside of bottle is wet (leads to decrease in mass)

Lab 2-1 Mass of Dissolved Salt

## Chapter 2 Vocabulary

1. Histogram: a bar graph that shows the number of times a value is represented for a large sampling group

2. Conservation of Mass: in all changes, mass is exactly conserved, provided nothing is added or allowed to escape MUST BE A CLOSED SYSTEM. Not true for volume

3. Laws of Nature: guessed generalizations based on many experiments. Can be adjusted when necessary to account for any changes in the limitation of a law

## Chapter 1.8

The Sensitivity of a Balance:

1. The margin of error (+-) that your balance gives when you mass an object

2. If you mass the same object, you dont get the same mass

3. Should be 0.02 away from each other

Lab 1-8 TBB.m4v

## 1.5 Mass Notes

Notes:

1. 1 kilogram= 2.2 lbs

## Chapter 1.4

Measuring Volume by Displacement of Water:

1. Possible Errors:

1. sand sticks to the side of the cylinder

2. read sand level, not H20 level

3. water splashes out when sand is poured

4. pour sand too fast, overflows funnel

Lab 1-4 Measuring Volume By Displacement

## Single Pan Balance Notes

1. Make sure pan is clean and dry

2. ALWAYS zero the balance before massing

3. NEVER switch pans

4. Pick up balance by red bar only

## Volume of Liquids

1. Use graduated cylinder to measure volume

2. ALWAYS check the intervals or scale

3. Units= mililiters (m) or mL or cm3

4. 1 mL= 1 cm3

## 1.2 Volume Notes

Notes:

1. Unit of Measurement= cm3

2. Volume= l*w*h

3. Standard unit of length= meter (m)

4. 1 centimeter= 0.01 m

5. 100 cm= 1 m

## Chapter 1.1

Baking Soda Lab

1. Baking Soda: Sodium Bicarbonate

2. Releases gas when heated

3. Tea: Indicator

4. Heated Baking Soda had changed, no longer Baking Soda

Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

## Reaction in a Bag Lab

Reaction in a Bag:

1. Turns yellow and bubbly when substances are mixed together.

2. It turns hot then cold.

3. It became thick.

4. The bag expands (produces a gas)

5. Substance A, B, and some sort of liquid is needed for this reaction to occur.

Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

## Chapter 1 Vocabulary

1. Observation: information obtained by the senses - often by direct measurement

2. Inference: a conclusion based upon known observations

3. Hypothesis: a proposed solution to a scientific problem

4. Control Group: the group that is the standard for comparison in any experiment

5. Experimental Group: group receiving variable being tested

6. Control Factors: variables that are held constant. They are the same for both the control group and experimental group

7. Indicator: a substance used to show the presence of another substance

8. Volume: the amount of space something occupies. True of solids, liquids, and gases

9. Volume Displacement Technique: quick, easy way to determine the volume of a solid or gas

10. Mass: amount of matter in a substance. True of solids, liquids, and gases

11. Meniscus: the curved portion of a liquid when in a container. Must read the BOTTOM of the meniscus (at eye level for proper measurement)

## Lab Safety

Lab Safety Notes

1. Nurse Extension: 2828

2. Goggles must be kept on your face until Mr. Leeds says to put them away.

3. NEVER taste chemicals, waft solids/powders, touch chemicals, wash hands with soap and water after lab.

4. Roll up sleeves and put UP hair

5. Never walk away from a lit burner

6. Never point the open end of a hot test tube at someone

7. DO NOT look into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated

8. NEVER add water to acid, DO acid to water

1. Could cause exothermic reaction

2. Water is LESS DENSE than acid so it will sit on top of acid and could splash out

Safety Equipment in the Classroom:

1. Fire Extinguisher

2. Fire Blanket

3. Eye Wash/Shower