MODERN TEXAS

By: Gideon Easley

The Countries

The Allies included Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. These countries fought against the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria. Archduke Ferdinand, of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serb on June 28, 1914.

WWI

In 1914 much of Europe became engaged in a terrible war. France, Great Britain, and Russia joined to fight the forces of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire. At first the United States remain neutral. However, many Americans wanted to enter the war.

Woodrow Wilson and Winston Churchill

Woodrow Wilson (1856 – 1924) Initially sought to keep America out of the global conflict. But, in 1917, he finally relented and took America into the war against Germany. After the war, he strove to develop the League of Nations and impose a fair peace settlement on the defeated parties. Winston Churchill (1874-1964) First Lord of the Admiralty. Resigned in 1915 for his role in the unsuccessful Gallipoli campaign. He returned as an officer on the Western front for several months. In 1917, he was appointed Minister of Munitions, where he was successful in organizing supplies.

1. What caused the U.S. to enter WWI? 2. How did Texas play an important role during the war?3. How did WWI end?

1. Germany, determined to win its war of attrition against the Allies, announced the resumption of unrestricted warfare in war-zone waters. Three days later, the United States broke diplomatic relations with Germany.

2. During the war, more than 1,500,000 military personnel came to Texas for training.

3. Germany had formally surrendered on November 11, 1918, and all nations had agreed to stop fighting while the terms of peace were negotiated.

1. How did FDR, pull the country out of depression? 2. What caused the Dust Bowl and how did it affect farmers in Texas? 3. Which New Deal programs were important to Texas. 4. How were tenant farmers and miners affected by the Great Depression?

1. Relief, which provided jobs and food aid to those most in need by 1933, Recovery, which preserved the major industries and economic sectors we would need to survive the Depression and rebuild the economy later, and Reform, to change the laws and regulate the economy so that future Depressions could be prevented.

2. It dried up all the food they had.

3. As economic conditions got worse during Herbert Hoover’s presidency, people began blaming him for the ongoing suffering. People who lost their homes gathered in temporary shelters made of tents or scrap material.

4. Almost 60 percent of Texans lived in rural areas in 1930, but only about 2 percent of farms in the state had electricity. To improve farm life and productivity, the New Deal helped farmers form cooperatives that could borrow money to bring electricity to an area.

1. How did Texas contribute to the nation’s military effort in fighting World War II? 2. How did life changed for Texans on the home front during World War II? 3. How did WWII end?

1. To improve defense, Texan David H. Byrd helped form the Civil Air Patrol in September 1941. As part of this program, civilian pilots flew their own planes on patrols to spot potential threats to civilians.

2. With so many Texans in the military service and wartime industries booming, a huge demand for workers developed. Between 1940 and 1943, some 500,000 rural Texans moved to cities to work in the factories. Thousands of Americans living in other states moved to Texas, as well.

4. They celebrated

The Great depression timeline

less than eight months into Herbert Hoover’s presidency. Most experts, including Hoover, thought the crash was part of a passing recession. By July 1931, when the President wrote this letter to a friend, Governor Louis Emerson of Illinois, it had become clear that excessive speculation and a worldwide economic slowdown had plunged America into the midst of a Great Depression. While Hoover wrote to Emerson that “considerable continuance of destitution over the winter” and perhaps longer was unavoidable, he was trying to “get machinery of the country into . . . action.” Since the crash, Hoover had worked ceaselessly trying to fix the economy.

By: Gideon Easley