World War 1 Timeline
Formation Of Alliances
In 1870, as part of its plan to unify Germany, Prussia forced France to give up territory along the German border. As a result, France and Germany became enemies. To protect itself, Germany signed alliances with Italy and with the huge empire of Austria-Hungary, which controlled much of southeastern Europe. This became known as the Triple Alliance.
Large Modern Navy
Russia supporting the Serbs
Russia supported the Serbs, but Austria-Hungary worked to limit Serbia’s growth. In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia, which had belonged to the Ottoman Empire, outraging the Serbs. The annexation demonstrated that Austria-Hungary had no intention of letting the Slavic people in its empire become independent.
The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand
Seven conspirators (part of the Black Hand) were involved in the plan to assassinate Ferdinand. One conspirator threw a hand grenade at the archduke's car when he was on his way to Sarajevo's city hall. The grenade bounced off the car and exploded near the following car; the archduke escaped injury. When Franz Ferdinand arrived at city hall, the Austrian commander warned the archduke that the city was about to erupt into rebellion. He convinced the archduke to escape quickly. After the reception, the archduke's car sped away from city hall, traveling fast enough to make it difficult for another attempt on his life, until the car had to make a sharp turn. The curve before the bridge over the river forced the car to slow down. There, 19-year-old Gavrilo Princip was able to approach the car and shot the archduke and his wife.
Americans Take Sides
When the war began, President Wilson immediately state that the United States would remain neutral. Despite his plea, many Americans took sides. Many side with the Allied cause, a lot of German & Irish Americans side with Triple alliance. For more than 2 years the U.S. remained neutral.
The Great Debate
Some believed that preparing for war was best way to stay out of conflict. Build up military so nobody messes with you (militarism). Others - To keep American out of war. Not getting involved in foreign issues.
British Propaganda Poster
This World War I British propaganda poster is intended to show how the war is destroying Britain's homes. It stirs the viewer's emotions, prompting anger toward the enemy and sympathy for the British cause. The destroyed home and the girl holding the baby provides impact to the poster's message. Providing statistics about those killed and wounded gives stronger evidence of what the enemy has done. "Men of Britain!" screams the text above the illustration. "Will you stand this?" issues a challenge primarily to British men to not let the enemy destroy their homes and families. An effective, persuasive appeal always ends with a call to action. "Enlist Now" suggests what citizens can do next to help protect their country.
The Sinking of the Lusitania
In February 1915, the Germans announced that they would use submarines to sink without warning any ship they found in the waters around Britain. They made this decision b/c of the British blockade. Supplies would go to British ports for war effort, they would be hidden as passenger ships. On May 7 1915, a U-boat sunk the Lusitania killing over 1000 passengers including 128 Americans.
The Zimmerman Telegram
USA joins the War
Victory Gardens - grow their own vegetables and fruit and different type of produce. Women would recycle fat from other foods to use as grease. Can vegetables and fruits to preserve these foods. The U.S. government promoted the use of Victory Gardens to encourage civilians to grow their own food instead of buying it from farmer-supplied stores. A way for people who cannot go to war to participate & do their duty that is similar to the level of a soldier's duty.
Shaping Public Opinions
Raising Money for WW1
Celebrities, such as "King of Hollywood," Douglas Fairbanks Encourage the average American citizen to buy bonds.
African American Soldiers March
African American civil rights leader W.E.B. Du Bois supported America’s war efforts, believing that the courage exhibited by African American soldiers benefited the fight for equality. This fight was hampered by the hypocrisy of some military commanders. Although publicly commending the African American troops, General John J. Pershing privately promoted the racial prejudice common at the time.
Women in the War
World War I was the first war in which women officially served in the armed forces. Women serving in the navy wore a standard uniform and were assigned the rank of yeoman. By the end of the war more than 11,000 women had served in the navy. Many performed clerical duties. Women served as nurses both in the army and navy since the early 1900s, but as auxiliaries.
By Spring of 1917, World War I devastated Europe. This is because of poor war strategy. New technology artillery resulted in terrible destruction. Many Americans believed their troops would make a difference and bring the war to an end. Early offensive demonstrated that warfare had changed. Powerful artillery guns placed far behind the front lines hurled huge explosive shells onto the battlefield. To protect themselves from artillery, troops began building trenches. Western Front- where German troops fought French, British, and Belgian forces. It was here where troops dug a trench networks that stretched from England channels to Western boarders. Both sides used barbed wire as a new weapon.