Progressive Era Vocabulary

American History II Honors

Vocabulary

Reform


make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.


Political Machine:

unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular group in power.


Progressive:

proceeding step by step.


Muckraker:

Writers who exposed corruption in politics and business in the early 20th century.


Prohibition:

The act of forbidding something; by law.


Disenfranchisement: Describes a person or group who have been stripped from their power

Vocabulary

Muckracker:

to search for and expose real or alleged corruption, scandal



De facto segregation:

Racial segregation, especially in public schools


De Jure Segregation

separation enforced by law


Graft:

the acquisition (gain) of money, gain, or advantage by dishonest, unfair, or illegal means.


Initiative:

a new plan or process to achieve something or solve a problem


Referendum:

an event in which the people of a county, state, etc., vote for or against a law that deals with a specific issue

Vocabulary

Recall:

bring (a fact, event, or situation) back into one's mind,


Mugwumps:

a person who remains aloof or independent, especially from party politics.


Niagara Movement:

was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter


Poll Tax:

tax of a fixed amount per person levied on adults and often linked to the right to vote.


NAACP:

the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, is a civil rights organization founded in 1909 to fight prejudice, lynching, and Jim Crow segregation, and to work for the betterment of "people of color."


Pendleton Act:

is a federal law established in 1883 that decided that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.

Vocabulary (Including Amendments)

Sherman Anti-Trust Act:

A federal law passed in 1890 that committed the American government to opposing monopolies.


16th amendment:

Permits congress to levy an Income tax


17th amendment:

Establishes the direct election of U.S Senators by popular vote.


18th amendment:

Prohibited the manufacturing or selling of alcohol


19th amendment:

Prohibits the denial of right to vote based on sex.


20th amendment:

Changes the date on which the terms of the President and Vice President (January 20) and Senators and Representatives (January 3) end and begin.


Great Migration:

was the movement of 6 million blacks out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.

Vocabulary

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896):

Supreme Court case upheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine


US v. EC Knight Company (1895): known as the "Sugar Trust Case," was a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies


American Tobacco v. US (1911):

restraint of trade and an attempt to monopolize the business of tobacco in interstate commerce


Clayton Anti-Trust Act:

supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and monopolies, and for other purposes.