Earth B Extra Credit

by Jason Salazar

Neutron Star

Quark Stars

  • A quark star is a hypothetical type of compact exotic star composed of quark matter
  • in 1965 by Soviet physicists D.D. Ivanenko and D.F. Kurdgelaidze.
  • extremely high densities but temperatures well below 10


  • Witten assumption of stability at near-zero temperatures and pressures

Preon Stars

Boson Stars

  • In the 1950s John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy
  • particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars
  • boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers
  • Boson stars may have been formed through gravitational collapse during the primordial stages of the big bang

Methane Dwarfs

  • Brown dwarfs occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas gaints and the lightest stars, with an upper limit around 75
  • exist in the 1960s by Shiv S. Kumar
  • most astronomers would classify any object with between 15 times the mass of Jupiter and 75 times the mass of Jupiter
  • have surface temperatures in the range of 800 to 1,880 degrees Fahrenheit

Carbon Stars

Pulsar Stars

Binary Stars

  • a system of two stars in which one star revolves around the other or both revolve around a common center
  • Binary stars are two stars orbiting a common center of mass
  • been called the double star
  • Five to 10 percent of visible stars are visual binaries