The Start of Civilization

Christian S., Luke C., Sujay A., and Rudy R.

Mesopotamia

Religion.

Mesopotamians were people who based their religion based on animist ideas.

Social Structure

The Mesopatamian Social Structure is as follows:


1. King

2.religious powers

3. Warriors/nobles

4. Specialized workforce (artists, merchants, blacksmiths, ect)

5. Common workforce

6. Peasants

7. Slaves

Cities

Mesopatamia was a large civilization that contained numerous cities. Notable civilization towns include Babylon, Ur, and Larsa.

Govenrment

Because mesopatamians were ruled by a king, their government fell under a monarchy.

Writing

Mesopatamians wrote in cuneiform, a pictogram language that was written on clay tables. This writing was well known, and allowed for the exchange of personal and business correspondence adn everyday items.

Egypt

Cities

Anciet Eygpt contained many cities. Those noteworthy include Thebes, Karnack, and Giza.

Government

The people of anciet Egypt were ruled under a monarchy.

Social Structure

The social structure in Egypt want the most organized or fair. It basically fell in this order: The king (pharaoh), those who worked for the king, and everybody else.

Religion

Anciet Egyptians were animist who believed in many gods. For example, there was Anubis, the god of the dead. A half man, half jackle creature that watched over those who passed.

Writing

Egptians wrote in hieroglyphics. A writing that was solely dependent on pictures that made communcating that mcuh easier.

Art

The first kind of art in Eygpt were life sized satues. This art form had 2 purposes:

1. To ensure an ordered existence.

2.To defeat death by preserving life into the next generation.

Indus Valley (2500 - 1700 BCE)

Cities

There were more than 100 civilization towns discovered in the Harrapan settlement. Notable towns include Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal, and Dholavira. An extremely organized city structure and very fertile soil allowed for a very stable food supply. Also, this civilization had one of the most hygienic and organized sewage system.

Government

Little is known about the government that the harappan natives followed under, due to the lack of historical text backing the matter. However, the aryans introduced the federal republic when they invaded, along with the social structures, religion, and writing.

Social Structue

Because the type of government is so unclear, historians arn't too sure what the social structure looked like either. On the opposite side however, historians have a wealth of knowledge reagrding this structure post-invasion. The aryans originally had a structure where at the top where priests, next were warriors, following were the merchants/artisans, and at the bottom where the laborers. This then later involved into the groundwork for what would be the caste system today.

Religon

Like the government, the religion of the harappan natives is truly unknown, due to the lack of historical documentation. But, the aryans provided the foundation for what would be hinduism, along with the original vedas (a collection of religous rituals).

Art

The native harappan's art lived in all of the crafts made they made in this era. Archaeological evidence has shown all the fine ceramics, jewelry, and fashion that was crafted and evntually traded for necessary goods.

Writing

Before the Aryan invasion, the harappan civilization natives used a writing heavily dependent on pictures. Historians describe it as a mixture between hieroglyphics and cuniform. After the invasion however, the aryans introduced sanskrit as the dominant language and their writing conformed to that.

China

Shang Dynasty (1722-1122 BCE)

The Shang dynasty ruled norteast China. The cities were formed around temples that were on a raised platform. Surrounding the temples were the industrial zone containing the craftsmen. After that came the common people's homes followed by graveyards in the outermost part of the cities. Some cities in the Shang Dynasty were Shang and Yin.


Government

In the Shang Dynasty the kings had complete power, but would appoint aristocrats to act as governors over the land.



Writing

The Shang Dynasty is the first Chinese Civilization to have recorded writing. They would write in bamboo, but mainly in oracle bones. Oracle bones were usually ox scapula and turtle shells that were written on and heated. After they heated the bones, they would break them and read the cracks. They would write questions on the oracle bones, and would decide the answer by reading the cracks. They would also write the history of the dynasty, and the timeline of the kings. The style of the writing on the oracle bones was very similar to Chinese writing today.


Zhou Dynasty

The Zhou Dynasty started when the Zhou tribe made alliance with neighboring tribes, and took over the Shang territory. The Zhou Dynasty was separated into 2 eras. First was Western Zhou, which was when the capital was in the Western Zhou territory. The second era was the Eastern Zhou period. This was the result of the Western capital being overthrown by surrounding tribes. This forced the Zhous to relocate East into the heart of the old Shang Dynasty.

The cities were surrounded by walls for protection, and were divided in neighborhoods by social class. The nobles would live with each other, the aristocrats would live in a different area, and the farmers would live outside the city walls because that was where their crops were located.


Government

The Zhou Dynasty had a feudal system created by the Duke of Zhao. The king would give nobles a part of the land in which they ruled. In return the noble would promise to fight for the king.


Writing

The Writing system matured from the writing that was used in the Shang Dynasty. It was during this time the system of writing modeled the writing of the current writing system in China.