Revolutionary Chaos in China
World War ll
Communists and Nationalists
Political and economic chaos was a major threat to the survival of China, Japan, and many Pacific nations in the 1930s. This crisis was caused by the effects of worldwide depression, population explosions, and military aggression. The biggest threat was a militaristic Japan that dreamed of controlling all of China, indeed, all of Asia. As nationalist were fighting communists japan was invading coastal cities of china. When Japan got defeated in World War II china was not peaceful. Chiang Kai-shek's nationalists were destroyed by the war, its army lost its confidence and its government was still corrupt. Communists gained control of 15 million Chinese and built their guerrilla army into a powerful army. As japan wanted more land and cities they did not stop being so mean and forceful. In December 7th 1941 japanese planes bombed the U.S. naval and military base known as pearl harbor. The bombing of Shanghai started the 2nd Sino-Japanese War in 1937. After almost destroying all of Shanghai, the Japanese troops did what was called "The Rape of Nanjing." Which for a period of two months, the Japanese brutally murdered up to 250,000 Chinese civilians and raped up to 80,000 women and girls.
The Communists Hiding
After the massacre of Shanghai most of the communist leaders went into hiding which was in the cities. Most of the communist tried reviving the communist movement there and most people were disconnected and were looking for leaders or leadership. Some parties fled to the mountainous region led by a young communist named Mao Zedong. He thought the chinese revolution was led by poverty in the country rather than the urban class. Chiang Kai-shek led most of the communists parties out of the shanghai urban class back to there rural territory in 1931 and succeeded. Chiang then brought his attention to Mao’s forces back in the rural region and he heavily out numbered Mao’s army. But Mao’s guerrilla tactics which is using unexpected sabotages and subterfuge.
The Long March
In 1934 Chiang’s troops, used their highest military strength and surrounded the communist base in their rural region. But Mao’s army the people’s liberation army or PLA broke the nationalists lines and they began the famous march. Mao’s army traveled 6000 miles through mountains, marshes, and deserts to reach the last surviving communist base which was in northwest China. Most troops fought all the way but many starved and froze to death. A year later his troops met safety in the dusty hills of north china and of the ninety thousand troops of the journey only nine thousand made it. Of that Long March Mao Zedong became the leader of the Chinese communist parties. At that time the communist threat was over but the communists remained hope in the future.