Types of mining and fracking
surface and subsurface mining
Surface mining is mining which soil and rock overlaying the mineral deposit are removed. Subsurface mining is the extraction of minerals from underground. The difference is surface mining is safer but does damage to surface ecosystems and subsurface is dangerous but doesn't damage ecosystems.
Strip mining is the removal of a thin layer of material known as overburden to access deposits of buried materials. Plant and animal life are effected by taking away there nutrients in there soil, it takes century's for it to come back.
Open pit mining
Open pit mining involves digging holes into the ground opposed to a small shaft in hard rock mining. Usually used with minerals like copper. Some effects on open pit mining is when they would crush the rock debree would be exposed and people would breathe it in
Mountain Top Removal Mining
Mountain Top Removal Mining is the mining of the summit of a mountain coal seams are extracted from the mountain by removing the land. Some effects are the physical changes in the land and some debree goes into the air and it bad to breath in.
Slope Mining is the digging up of geological material such as coal or ore. Some effects of it is deforestation.
Drift Mining is the cutting into the side of the earth to get coal and other geologic material. Some effects of this is destroying habits and tunnels would cave in.
Shaft Mining is underground or in a tunnel. Some effects is the habitats.
Fracking is the process of drilling fluid into the ground in order to fracture shale rocks for natural gases inside. Some effects is that methane and toxic chemicals leak into underground drinking water which is bad to consume.