Water Borne Diseases

Watch your water! By Richard Doan and William Yoon

Water Borne Diseases caused by Bacteria

Cholera

Microorganism: Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholera.

Kingdom of microorganism: Bacteria

Habitat of the microorganism: Brackish Rivers, Marine Waters, and Waters Infested Feces (from an infected person) are all habitats of Vibrio cholera

Names and Symptoms of the disease: Only 5-10% of people get severe symptoms including profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. Victims with severe symptoms may also experience dehydration and shock

How the microorganism reproduces: Vibrio cholera reproduces through binary fission.

How the microorganism causes the disease: When Vibrio Cholera gets to the small intestine it releases a toxin that dehydrates your body by making your body unable to reabsorb water.

Treatment: Urgent and immediate replacement of the water and salts that get lost through diarrhea and vomiting are more important than anything in order to heal.

Prevention: In order to stop the spread of Vibrio Cholera you need to wash your hands with soap and water often and always use chemically, boiled, or bottled water, so you know that it is clean.

Typhoid Fever

Microorganism: Typhoid Fever is called Salmonella Typhi

Kingdom of microorganism: Bacteria

Habitat of the microorganism: Salmonella Typhi hides in infected feces and urine.

Name and Symptoms of the disease: Having a fever (103 degrees Fahrenheit or higher), abdominal pain, headache, loss of appetite, rose-coloured spots on the chest are all symptoms that Salmonella Typhi is in your system.

How the microorganism causes the disease: The microorganism gets carried to the small intestine temporarily and use white blood cells as a car to go to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. They start to cause symptoms from there.

How the microorganism reproduces: Salmonella Typhi reproduces through binary fission.

Treatments for the disease: Antibiotics is the main treatment for Typhoid fever.

Prevention: Avoid risky foods and drinks and get vaccinated against Typhoid fever in order to not/lower (the chances of) getting Typhoid Fever

By protist

Malaria

Microorganism: Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium parasites known as P. Falciparum, P. Vivax, P. Ovale, and P. Malariae.

Kingdom of microorganism: Protist

Habitat of the microorganism: The Plasmodium parasites (listed above) infect Anopheles mosquitoes. They live in tropical and sub-tropical areas all around the world.

Name and Symptoms of the disease: The main symptoms of Malaria are fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, nausea and vomiting, diarrhoea, anaemia, and jaundice. Convulsions, coma, severe anaemia and kidney failure may happen as well. (Sometimes symptoms never show for a long time).

How the microorganism reproduces: (In humans) The parasites grow and reproduce in liver cells, and end up invading and destroying red blood cells. Those parasites spawn merozoites (daughter parasites) when they destroy a blood cell which keeps the cycle going.

How the microorganism causes the disease: The microorganism gets into red blood cells in the liver and starts to multiply. As it multiplies it goes into the bloodstream and infects other red blood cells. When the red blood cells break apart due to the growth of the microorganisms the symptoms start to appear.

Treatments for the disease: Chloroquine, Atovaquone-Proguanil, Artemether-Lumefantrine, Mefloquine, Quinine, Quinidine, Doxycycline (used in combination with quinine), and Clindamycin (used in combination with quinine) are the typical drugs used to treat malaria.

Prevention: Using an insecticide-treated bed net, detecting and controlling infections, and applying intermittent preventive therapy are all ways to prevent the spread/getting infected with Malaria.

Giardiasis

Microorganism: Giardia are microscopic parasites a.k.a. Giardia intestinalis. Giardia lamblia. and Giardia duodenalis.

Kingdom of microorganism: Protist

Habitat of the microorganism: Giardia lives in places that have been infected with feces from an infected animal or human.

Name and Symptoms of the disease: The main symptoms of Giardiasis are diarrhea, gas, greasy stools that tend to float, stomach or abdominal cramps, upset stomach or nausea/vomiting, and dehydration (loss of fluids)

How the microorganism reproduces: When Cysts (spreads Giardiasis) get into your small intestine, a process called excystation makes each Cyst produce 2 Trophozoites (The Cyst still lives). They then reproduce asexually in the small bowel, get inside another organism, and repeat the process.

How the microorganism causes the disease: The microorganism gradually changes the lining of the intestine and affects how your body absorbs fat.

Treatments for the disease: Metronidazole, Tinidazole, and Nitazoxanide are the recommended drugs, but Paromomycin, Quinacrine, Furazolidon, etc. may be used if needed.

Prevention: Some ways to protect yourself from Giardiasis are to only drink water that has been treated in a safe country, to stay away from poop, to avoid eating food that might have been contaminated, and to practice good hygiene. If a pet has it then you need to clean your house regularly and make a habit of washing your hands frequently.

By Animal

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)

Microorganism: River Blindness is caused by the microorganism Onchocerca volvulus.

Kingdom of microorganism: Animal

Habitat of microorganism: The Black flies live in fast flowing streams (the microorganism lives in the black flies).

Name and Symptoms of the disease: Skin rash, vision changes, and nodules under the skin are the main symptoms on Onchorcerciasis.

How the microorganism reproduces: The microorganism reproduces sexually inside nodules where it is safe for them.

How the microorganism causes the disease: The bite of an infected Simulium blackfly causes River Blindness by injecting Onchocerciasis larvae under the skin. Those larvae mature and start to produce thousands. Most symptoms are caused by those larvae dying.

Treatment for the disease: The drug Ivermectin is the most recommended treatment for River Blindness. Ivermectin can kill the larvae and prevent symptoms, but does not kill the adult parasites, so it reduces just the severity. There is also a new treatment called Doxycycline that kills bacteria that the worms need in order to survive.

Prevention: In order to prevent yourself from getting River Blindness, avoid being bitten by infected blackflies by using insecticides that contain DEET on exposed skin. You can also wear long sleeve clothes/permethrin- treated clothes.

Bibliography


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    3. "Giardia." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 July 2015. Web. 17 May 2016.
    4. "Waterborne Diseases Factsheet." Water Wise -. N.p., 2016. Web. 17 May 2016.
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    12. "Typhoid Fever Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Vaccine." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 17 May 2016.
    13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 10 Aug. 2015. Web. 17 May 2016

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