Thyroid Cancer

Marissa Walker and ShayLin Kelly Durham

What is Thyroid Cancer?

Thyroid cancer is the result of when cells grow rapidly uncontrollably in the thyroid gland. This multiplication of cancerous cells in the thyroid gland forms and creates tumors of any size at the base of the neck and throat where the thyroid is located. The hormones that responsible for function in the body such as heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism, and the temperature of a body is produced in the thyroid gland. When diagnosed with thyroid cancer some or all of these functions will be affected.

"Medullary Thyroid Cancer." Medscape. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

Marissa Walker

Symptoms and Signs of Thyroid Cancer

Early signs of thyroid cancer may include excessive tiredness and abnormal weight gain. Other signs later in the cancer development maybe:

  • Hoarseness
  • Slower heart rate
  • Thin weak hair
  • Heavy menstrual periods in women

Infants born with thyroid cancer most likely be born with yellowing skin and eyes, and may choke often due to the tumor pressing of their esophagus.

In children and teens the effect of thyroid cancer may be slow to poor development to growth, puberty, dental development, and mental development.

Marissa Walker

A Neck Check: Looking at Your Thyroid

"A Neck Check: Looking at Your Thyroid." Youtube. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.

Marissa Walker



There are few known causes or things that put you at risk, among them are;

  • Having benign thyroid disease

  • goitre (enlarged thyroid)

  • thyroiditis (inflamed thyroid)

  • radiation especially radiation therapy

  • family history of thyroid cancer

  • obesity

  • acromegaly (producing too much growth horomone

  • diabetes

  • previous cancers

Shay Lin

What are the cures?

Two main types of cancer;

  1. PTC 84% survival rate
  2. FTC 94% survival rate
  • both have a 40 year life expectancy
  • patients-40 yr life expectancy

with 84% survival rate

  • There are 4 treatments

  1. thyroidectomy
  2. radioiodine
  3. 131(removes residual thyroid tissue)
  4. lifelong thyroxine(suppresses production)


Shay Lin

How Does Cancer Grow?

cancer is caused when cell division is uncontrollable and rapid, this forms tumors which can grow to affect other parts of the body. When this tumor forms it also makes to new blood vessels to provide itself with nutrients. This is called angiogenesis.

They can spread to other parts of the body through their adhesion. They separate from the original tumor and reattach to a new part of the body.

The cancer cells also destroy healthy cells in what’s called invasion.

Shay Lin

Annotation of Mayo Clinic

Mayo Clinic Staff “Hypothyroidism” Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research

2015. Web. 15 Nov. 2015. <

The Mayo Clinic is a credible source because it is a well recognized non-profit organization that specializes in medical practices, education, and research. There may be a bias in the writing due to past experiences with Mayo Clinic patients or their families and reviews that may had been shared, or they may not have ad any experience at all with the Mayo Clinic or anyone who has needed such intense treatment. This was a formal document written by an author from a well known journaling blog online reviewing my source, the Mayo Clinic. The review was written very recently within the past year. The review gives a credible overview of the kind of high respected work that goes on at the Mayo Clinic and suggested their data is highly respected.

Annotation of Gale

“Thyroid cancer.” World of Health. Gale, 2007. Biography in Context. Web. 17 Dec. 2015.

Gale provides school, libraries, and businesses with proper resources to data for research. Gale is a well known for the material it provides from multiple sources of experts, teachers, and specialists on any given topic. Any possible bias will come from the individual expert that had written the published work on Gale. The article was published 8 years ago in 2007 but is still relevant because there has been no updated definition of thyroid cancer in this time. This product of Gale has a great overview of the topic and gives a good general understanding for the reader to comprehend while reading this document.

Annotation of MD Anderson Cancer Center

"Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis." MD Anderson Cancer Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec.

2015. <


MD Anderson Cancer Center is one of the largest most well known cancer centers in the world. This center has been doing extensive research and care dealing with cancer for more than 60 years now. They are highly credible due to many years of experience and a staff of plentiful award winning doctors and researchers. I believe there is a bias on how to diagnose thyroid cancer based on the methods that have been found most effective in their many years of experiences with this cancer. All statistic and other outside research has shown that the content in the text reflects the outside data.

Medical New Annotation

Costa, Peter. "Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research." Medical News
Today. Medilexicon, n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015.
<>. Peter Costa
graduated for Colombia University. He has previously been the Director of
Search and Data for Noodle Education, the Director of Research or 2U, a
Data Scientist for Teachers College, Colombia University, which involved
analysis of millions of data sets, working with a Led Technical Assistance
team of 10-15 partners from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation,
employed data mining algorithms and much more. He was the Senior Research
Systems Analyst and previously a Research Fellow for Colombia University
and was also the Research Assistant/Programmer for Mathematica Policy

Cancer Research UK Annotation

"Thyroid cancer risks and causes." Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK, n.d.
Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <
thyroid-cancer/about/thyroid-cancer-risks-and-causes>. Cancer Research
UK is a registered charity in the United Kingdom, including England, Wales,
Scotland and the Isle of Man. They present information in an easy to read
and highly accessible way because they believe people should have free
access to information regarding cancer. The charity was founded in 1995 by
Nick James and Sally Tweddle. James in currently a cancer specialist at the
Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Professor of Oncology at the University of
Birmingham Institution For Cancer Studies. Before her death in 1999 Tweddle
was an educationalist who worked at the National Council for Educational
Technology in Coventry.

ProQuest Annotation

"Who We Are." ProQuest. ProQuest, n.d. Web. 4 Jan. 2016.
<>. ProQuest is a company that is dedicated
to knowledge and supplying others with a vast and easily accessible
database. They have 90,000 authoritative sources, 6 billion digital pages,
has the largest collection of dissertations in the world, 20 million
pages worth of newspapers going back three centuries and collections from
scholarly journals, libraries and museums such as the Royal Archives, the
Associated Press, and the National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People. They structure their data to allow for anyone to be able to
do in depth research on a topic and be able to read documents from multiple
view points.