Adult and Teacher Development Within the School Context
Stages of Adult Learning
Does the ability to learn decrease with age?
Let's start by introducing the two types of intelligence as defined by Horn and Catell (page 50) Fluid and Crystallized
Fluid-The ability to solve new problems, use logic in new situations, and identify patterns.
Crystallized-The ability to use the knowledge you have gained.
Sternberg Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
2.) Experiential-The level of experience a person has such as in their work experience.
3.) Contextual-Intelligence that comes from adjusting to one's environment and can adapt if needed.
4.) Wisdom-The ability to balance individual interests with interests of others all while balancing the affect of environmental factors.
Theories of Adult Learning
- Adult learning is focused on trying to solve real-life problems.
- Adults have experiences that can help them in a learning situation.
- Adults want to apply what they have learned right away.
- Adult learning is different from that of children because children learn based on a curriculum and adults learn from the need that is present.
Transformational Learning (Jack Mezirow)
- Theory emerged out of research of women going back to pursue higher education.
- Can occur after a major life event or a life crisis.
- Adults make their own interpretations instead of basing decisions based on what others think
- Leads to autonomous thinking and can be promoted by keeping a reflective journal, analyze the effectiveness of lessons and getting feedback from students.
- Learning from a situation that arises.
- Decision has to be planned out.
- Evaluate outcome of the decision.
- Results in a lesson being learned.
Holistic Adult Learning
- embedded knowledge-Learning that comes from daily routines.
- narrative learning-Planning out a personal course of action.
- spiritual learning-
- somatic learning-Kinesthetic and emotions. Use journals particularly for first year teachers to reflect on experiences.
Teachers as Adult Learners
- New ways to teach must be linked to teacher's past experience.
- Teachers must be given ample time to implement changes.
- Teacher learning should be more individualized such as for new teachers and more experienced teachers.
- Encourage teachers to partner with fellow teachers on various teams.
- Provide opportunities for teachers to serve on leadership roles.
- Encourage use of journals to reflect on teaching experiences and have dialogue with colleagues.
- Engage in mentoring activities.
Cognitive Development (Piaget)
- Progressing towards higher levels of thinking as it relates to teachers.
- Encourage teachers to take on the role of facilitating learning for students as opposed to only imparting knowledge to them. This way the students become responsible for their own learning.
Moral Development (Kohlberg and Kramer)
- Preconventional-Decision made based on individual interests.
- Conventional-Decision made based on doing the right thing based on social norms.
- Postconventional-Decisions made with the interests of other people's rights in mind.
Life Cycle of a Teacher
- New, young teachers can become bored easily because of the lack of variety, opportunity to advance.
- Older teachers are often treated the same and may feel like their seniority and experience is not valued.
Role Development-School systems and supervisors need to be more supportive and sensitive to the impact that family roles and responsibilities affect the professional lives of teachers.