Dates of the Modern Era

Amaya Bradford


The Chinese refused to allow less restricted trading relationship with Britain because they thought they were inferior to them and they would gain no benefit. They sent an embassy before to China to try and convince. That is what is depicted below.
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Napoleon invaded Egypt while it was still under Ottoman Empire rule. The Ottoman Empire was failing at the time and was very weak. Many nations were taking advantage of that and taking their land. It came out independent and strong.
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In Japan there were many rebellions and famine during this time. The shogunates were losing control because Japan was becoming urbanized. There were many social changes that the shogunates tried to stop but they were ignored. The common people were upset that they couldn't deal with the recent severe famine and they rioted to express their grievances.

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This is the First Opium War. The British sent a large naval fleet to lessen the strict restrictions on trade in China and they were angry about the suppression of opium. They wanted to teach them a lesson on the "right way" to trade. Britain won because of their powerful army and the peace treaty made was in favor of the British and opened up trade in China more.
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The Tanzimat Reforms of the Ottoman Empire took place during this time. They leaders wanted to provide a legal,meconomic, and social foundation for the new decentralized state. Factories produced new things, there were new technological advances, there were Western law codes and new schools. This began the modernization of the Ottoman Empire. There were changes in the legal status of the communities and it raised questions about the empire. It created the Young Ottomans.
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The Taiping Uprising took place at this time in China. The people turned away from the Qing dynasty because of it's Manchu origins. The leaders of the uprising were Christian and rejected Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. They wanted a revolutionary change in China like abolition of private roper try, end of prostitution and opium, and more equal gender roles.

The significance of this is that it is the climax of China's internal crisis.

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This was the time of the Second Opium war in China. The British won this war like the first one. More ports were opened to them and the traders were allowed to travel freely in China, buy land, preach Christianity, and patrol some rivers. The Chinese were losing more of their independence to Britain. Also they vandalized the emperors Summer Palace which humiliated them.
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Admiral Perry arrived in Tokyo Bay with the aggressive power of the West. He demanded that Japan treated castaways humanely, let American ships refuel and buy provisions, and open up more ports for trade. Japan agreed to his treaties to avoid war. Although this dissipated the shogunate's support, caused a brief civil war, and a political takeover of samurai in the south.
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This was the Meiji restoration in Japan. The country's new rulers wanted to restore the power of the emperor, Meiji. They thought he was the last decent of their sun goddess. They wanted to modernize Japan but did not want foreign domination.


The Sino-Japanese War between China and Japan. Japan won and China was brought under it's empire. The sucess of Japan showed that is had a formidable military.
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In northern China the Boxer Uprising erupted as a anti-foreign movement. This was the sign of failure in China's self-strengthening program. It was led by militia organizations called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. They killed many Europeans and Chinese Christians. China ended up more dependent after they got punished by Western powers.

The significance of this is that they killed many people and it became clear that China was going to remain dependent under foreign countries.

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This was the time of the Russo-Japanese War. The Japanese defeated Russia. Japan was a Great Power and Great Powers took over other countries so that's what Japan did to launch it's own empire-building enterprise.
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In 1908, a group of military and civilian elites who opposed the Sultan in the Ottoman Empire were called the Young Turks. They wanted a militantly secular public life. A military coup allowed them to have power and they modernized the empire by pushing for secularization, establishing the Law of Family Rights for all religions, and reduced oppression on women.
The Ottoman Empire: Reform and its Opponents


Japan annexed Korea after gaining from successful wars from China and Russia. Japan was building an empire and proving it was a Great Power.
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Qiu Jin was a woman who said women were essential to strengthening China. She recruited students in an anti Qing movement. People were mad at the dynasty because it was foreign and it failed to protect China. The Qing dynasty failed to suppress the rebellion with ineffective reforms and collapsed. This was the Chinese Revolution and it collapsed the Qing dynasty.

Opium Wars

The significance of these wars are that it made China a lot more dependent and Western and Japanese influence was brought into China.

Unequal treaties

China was forced to sign unequal treaties after losing the Opium Wars. They opened up for ports for trade to the world. They also put restrictions on their sovereignty and reduced their independence. In the second war foreign traders were allowed to travel and buy land in China and preach Christianity.

Self-strengthening movement

Policies in China tried to bring back traditional China while borrowing from the West a little. It failed and started the Boxer Uprising.

Commissioner Lin Zexu

He worked to dispose of all opium in Canton. He did so efficiently and confiscated many pounds of it but the British and a negative reaction to dumping all their opium in the sea and started the Opium Wars.

Sick Man of Europe

This weakened the Ottoman empire and it fell under control of many different Christian powers. It also shrank considerably.

Young Ottomans

They favor a more European society and the Sultan accepted a constitution and elected parliament for a short time. The Young Turks used their ideas.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

He accepted more a European democracy for a short time but reverted back to old ways. From this came the Young Turks.

Young Turks

They gained power and pushed for secularized schools, allowed elections, established a Law of Family Rights for all people reguardless of religion, opened schools for women, and let women have more power.

Informal empires

China and the Ottoman Empire fell under these as semi-colonies but kept some independence. Although they couldn't fend off European powers.

Tokugawa Japan

They were governed by a shogunate who's main task was to prevent going back to feudal Japan. They had more than two centuries of internal peace. The samurai started to stop living by the sword and start living by commerce.

Meiji Restoration

It's the turning point in Japan's history. They started to modernize Japan and break from tradition without violence.

Russo-Japanese War

The success of the Japanese of this war showed that they had a formidable military. People gained admiration for Japan and used them as a model as their own development and ally.