English Civil War {1641-1649}

By: Karri Wex, Kiana Sweem, Stephanie Steinhardt

Summary

In 1641, King Charles I of England waged war on his own Parliament, invading with 500 soldiers, and later being forced to flee the consequences. When his flight ended, he found himself in Nottingham, where he raised his flag and made a stand. This forced the general public of his country to choose sides between their Parliament representatives and their King. When the two forces clashed, so did the public, thus beginning the English Civil War. For 10 years they fought, and when the dust settled, Parliament stood on top. The resulting peace treaty represented the first time in European history that a group government had control over a monarchy.

Causes

Direct cause: King Charles I invades his own Parliament, then challenges Parliament to war.


Root cause: Both a monarchy and a Parliament could not exist together with equal power, one had to overcome the other.

Outcome

Charles I is beheaded by Parliament after being found guilty of treason. The English Civil War comes to an end at his death.


Main Significance

After Parliament defeated the Royalists and the monarchy was reinstated, it was quite different than from when the war began. England was the first country in Europe to ever to have a group government control a monarchy.

Timeline

1642


January:

King Charles attempted to arrest 5 MP's and then flees London 6 days later


March:

The militia ordinance was passed by theEnglishParliament


April:

The parliament took seize over Hull ( a large arsenal) and denied King Charles entrance


July:

Parliament voted to raise and army


September:

Battles of Powick Bridge


October:

Battle of Edgehill


1643

May:

Peace negotiations where held at Oxford but failed


June:

Parliament was defeated at the battle of Adwalton Moor, resulting in the Solemn League and Covenant, between parliament and the scots


July:

The Royalists began their counter-siege of the Hull


October:

The Royalists siege of the Hull failed due to Parliament forces


1644

July:

Battle of Marston Moor


September:

Earl of Essex was trapped in Cornwall and surrendered all his troops at the Respryn Bridge


December:

Self-denying ordinance was introduced though it was not passed until April of 1645


1645

January:

Beginning of the creation of the New Model Army


June:

Battle of Naseby (major defeat for Charles I)


July:

Battle of Langport (Royalists again defeated)


September:

Prince Rupert forced to surrender at Bristol


1646

April:

Charles I surrenders to the Scots


June:

Oxford surrendered


July:

Peace Terms offered to Charles at NewCastle


1647

February:

Scouts hand Charles over to Parliament, and Parliament votes to disband the army


May:

Many regiments of Parliament's army refuse to disband


June:

Charles I seized by Cornet Joyce


July:

A royalist mob invades Parliament, forcing many MP's to flee


November:

Charles escapes from captivity


December:

Charles signs an engagement which invites the Scots to invade England


1648

July:

A Scot Army led by Scottish Royalists enters England


August:

Cromwell defeats the uprising in South Wales and crushes the Scots at the Battle of Preston


December:

The House of Commons voted to negotiate with Charles; Pride’s Purge of the House of Commons; Cromwell offered his support of the purge


1649

January:

A High Court of Justice decides to try Charles; the King's trial opens January 20th. Charles is executed January 30th.



10 Key Figures from the war

King Charles I:

Was the king of England, Scotland, and Ireland



He lived an extravagant lifestyle and always was in need of more money

Relied on the Duke of Buckingham, which led to wars with France and Spain


William Laud:

An unpopulated Archbishop

Insisted on the existence of Papists


Lord Strafford:

Found clever ways to fund the extravagant lifestyle of the King

His plots became known as "Strafford's Fork"


Oliver Cromwell:

Prominent Parliament supporter

Leader of a "new model army"


Cavaliers:

A highly disciplined, well equipped, religious army, that had a major fighting role in the war

Could be identified by their steel body armor and lobster tailed helmets


Roundheads:

New soldiers who where identified by their short hair


Colonel Pride:

Colonel Thomas Pride


Royalist:

Supporters of the King that came from noble families

They fought for the infantry and foot army


New Model Army:

A modern Army under the lead of Oliver Cromwell

Defeated the Royalists at 2 important battles


Court of Star Chamber:

A court which King Charles used to convict his enemy's

The people had no legal rights in the court