Do you know what this is?
What is it?
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that encodes the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. Its structure is a double helix. Its found in the cells nucleus.
The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information.
A little bit about DNA!!
DNA can be twisted like a rope in a process called DNA supercoiling With DNA in its "relaxed" state, a strand usually circles the axis of the double helix once every 10.4 base pairs, but if the DNA is twisted the strands become more tightly or more loosely wound. If the DNA is twisted in the direction of the helix, this is positive supercoiling, and the bases are held more tightly together. If they are twisted in the opposite direction, this is negative supercoiling, and the bases come apart more easily. In nature, most DNA has slight negative supercoiling that is introduced by enzymes called polymerases These enzymes are also needed to relieve the twisting stresses introduced into DNA strands during processes such as transcription and DNA replication
What does DNA do?
The conundrum of how certain traits were passed on from parent to child was visible throughout history. It is seen that most offspring are a blend of either the parents or have certain aspects are accentuated, like facial structure in humans or speed in animals. Although these topics are somewhat broad, they join together in the subject of heredity, when traits of parents are passed on to the offspring by means of the genes. We learn the properties of heredity from the “Augustinian monk”, Gregor Mendel, whom is famous for his pea plant experiment.The replication of DNA requires more than just DNA polymerase. For example, the two strands of DNA must be separated before DNA polymerase can replicate the strands. The enzyme that separates the strands is known as helicase This enzyme first binds to a specific site on the DNA known as the origin of replication (prokaryotes have only a single origin on their chromosome while eukaryotes have several on each of their chromosomes) and separates the strands - this allows the DNA polymerase to bind.Most genes contain the information needed to make functional molecules called proteins. (A few genes produce other molecules that help the cell assemble proteins.) The journey from gene to protein is complex and tightly controlled within each cell. It consists of two major steps: transcription and translation. Together, transcription and translation are known as gene expression.
What is RNA?
ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information.
Types of RNA!
What does RNA do?
RNA fits through the pores of the nuclear membrane, unlike the DNA, allowing it to transport all of the information to the specific parts. When RNA copies parts of DNA, it only copies parts of it, only the parts needed. For example, it would not copy information needed for fingernails if it needed one for skin.
What is DNA?