Neuroscience

The Brain

The Brainstem

Oldest and most central part of the brain. Responsible for many basic functions and includes the medulla and pons. The medulla controls heartbeat and breathing, while the pons help coordinate movements.

The Thalamus

Located on top of the brainstem. The thalamus directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Similar to a hub in which traffic passes going to different destinations.

The Limbic System

Cerebral Cortex

A thin layer of interconnected neural cells which is the bodys main control and information processing center.

Frontal Lobes

Located just behind the forehead. Involved in making plans and judgements as well as speaking and muscle movements.

Parietal Lobes

Located at the top of the head and toward the rear. It receives sensory input for touch and body position.

Occipital Lobes

Located at the back of the head. Includes areas that receive information from the visual fields.

Temporal Lobes

Located roughly above the ears. Includes the auditory areas that receive information primarily from the opposite ear.

Motor Cortex

Located at the rear of the frontal lobes. Controls voluntary movements.

Somatosensory Cortex

Located at the front of the parietal lobes. Registers and processes body touch and movement sensations.

Association Areas

Areas of the cerebral cortex that aren't involved in primary motor or sensory functions. They are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, speaking, remembering, and thinking.