France- Age of Absolutism
By: Tristen, Justin, and Courtney
Map of France
History of France
The defeat of the Spanish armada made the real power in Europe had shifted to England and France in 1588. Henry of Navarre is the huguenots leader that beat the Catholics in France in 1589. The battle lasted 30 years. In French war of religion, religion played a huge role. Henry IV then realized as a protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France so he then made the Edict of names that gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges in 1598. The witchcraft trials during the 16 and 17th century the lives of many people were affected and more than a hundred thousand were charged with witchcraft and then died because of it. Louis XIV came to throne of France in 1643. He has been regarded as the best example of absolutism in the 17th century. Louis XIV died January 21,1793. The rule of Louis XIV Influenced monarchs throughout Europe.
Huguenots- French protestants influenced by John Calvin, made up 7% of the French population. They were a powerful political threat to the crown.
Henry of Navarre- Huguenot political leader, became king of France in 1589, when he became king he converted to Catholicism to make peace, he issued the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes- issued in 1598 by Henry of Navarre, this made Catholicism the official religion of France, gave Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
Absolutism- system in which a ruler holds total power
Louis XIV- came to throne of France in 1643 at the age of four, had help from Cardinal Mazarin until his death, the day after Louis XIV took control at the age of 23. Although Louis had absolute power, his power was limited at the local level. Nobles, Local officials and town councils had more influence than the king in the daily operation of local governments.
Cardinal Richelieu- Louis XIII’s chief minister, he took away the Huguenots political and military rights, but kept their religious rights
The Edict of Nantes was the edict that recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, and gave Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges. This was issued because for the past thirty battles had been occurring in France between Catholics and the Huguenots. Finally, Henry of Navarre, the Huguenot political leader, was crowned as king in 1594. He realized that by being a Huguenot, Catholic France wouldn’t accept him as king, so he converted to Catholicism and established it as the official religion of France. After that the fighting in France finally came to an end.
2. Based on his rule, how might Louis XIV’s views of absolutism have differed from those of Jacques- Benigne Bossuet?Louis XIV believed more in himself and himself entirely. He removed people of high power from the government that he felt to be a threat. Louis XIV had such an extravagant lifestyle, that no one could challenge him and no one wanted to challenge him. He didn’t think before he did. Whereas Jacques believed that before he did he should check with God. Jacques believed that even though kings had power, they were never the highest power, God always was, but Louis XIV believed in himself alone to run a government.
New Ideas that originated from the empire
Legacy of the Empire
Even thought Louis XIV helped French culture, language, and manners reached into all levels of European society French diplomacy and wars dominate the political affairs of Europe, he still left France with great debts and surrounded by enemies. Also before Louis XIV, there was a period of struggle of governments fought to avoid the breakdown of the state. Louis XIII and Louis XIV were only boys when they came to the throne. The government was left in the hands of royal ministers. In France, two ministers played important roles in preserving the authority of the monarchy.
One key to Louis’s power was his control of the central policy making machinery of government. The palace of Versailles served as the center of French government. He established a royal court at Versailles and it served 3 purposes:
- Personal household of the king
Place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves
The chief offices of the state were located there.
-Louis ordered the destruction of Huguenots churches and the closing of their schools, Many fled to England, the United Provinces, and the German State
-Henry of Navarre ended the French wars of religion because he was the Huguenot political leader and succeeded to the the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France. Therefore he converted to Catholicism and when he was crowned king in 1594, the fighting in France ended.
-Henry of Navarre solved the religious problem because he issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France. It also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges such as holding public offices.
- Because of Louis XIV French culture, language, and manners reached into all levels of European society French diplomacy and wars dominated the political affairs of Europe. The court of Louis XIV was imitated throughout Europe.
Religion of the Empire
The religion was Catholicism from the Edict of Nantes in 1598.
Also during the reign of Louis XIV, he pursued an anti-Protestant policy aimed at converting the Huguenots to Catholicism. He ordered the destruction of the Huguenot churches and the closing of their schools too. Many Huguenots fled to England, the United Provinces, and the German states.
What changed during the Period
-During the 16th century, the French wars of Religion caused many changes in France. Religion was the most important issue, but other factors played a role in the French civil wars. Conflict was between Catholics and Protestants
-Catholicism became the main religion in France
-Many huguenots died from Louis’s orders-Louis XIV came to throne in 1643
Spielvogel, Jackson J. Glencoe World
History. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill
Glencoe, 2010. 433. Print.
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