Renewable Energy...

ON A SHOESTRING BUDGET.

Welcome to our Mission Middle School Student-Powered Showcase Digital Newsletter

8th Grade Honors Science Students.

Objective: Investigate different forms of renewable energy with low cost materials.


We are presenting engineering/science projects that promotes renewable energy; pneumatic motor, solar ovens and a hydroelectric generator.

SPONSORS

Croxton Electrical

We want to thank Mr. Keith Croxton from Croxton Electric for donating materials and being a technical adviser.


http://www.croxtonelectric.com/

Jurupa Unified Maintenance Department

Mr. Ricardo Solis is the Energy Manager and oversees the solar panel program at Jurupa Unified. We want to thank Mr. Solis for his efforts in teaching our students about the solar panel program throughout the district and school. Mr. Solis provided all graphs and data charts for our presentation.

Pneumatic Motor

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What is the pneumatic motor?

A pneumatic motor is a motor powered by air. It uses a rotor that is driven by air which is connected to the crankshaft. The crankshaft is connected to the transmission, which is connected to the drivetrain. The drivetrain powers anything that requires rotary motion.

Report

Introduction

My goal is to create an engine that would generate absolutely no emission. I found that the most promising solution is a pneumatic motor. The method I used to create the prototype is to use a lightweight rotor made up of styrofoam cups to absorb the power from the air compressor to create motion. In the beginning, I wanted to use cylinders and have air compress to push them until I realized that I do not have the tools to do so. This design is like a Plan B if I couldn’t build my first design. The little power it generated was probably from the lack of power given to the motor and this has a lot of potential. This design consists of a styrofoam rotor and axle. It uses cardboard to hold the belt in, which is made up of garden nets and duct tape. The base structure of the prototype is a cardboard box that has a hole cut into it to plug in the compressor hose. This design performed poorly, but it ran. It generated little rpm, but the belt stayed in place and the motor does stabilize. The only problems with this prototype is the lack of power it generates.



Research

Due to gas engines, the atmosphere is disintegrating and people are dying. This is caused by the fact that carbon monoxide is emitted from gas engines and is polluting the air. This problem has killed many people in the world. An Australian company called EngineAir has created a motor called the Di Pietro Motor. Their motor is based on the design of a rotary engine, but it does not use any fuel mixture. Electric engines can be the solution to pollution, but the power plants that power the motor generates a lot of emission. Today, your vehicles can either be efficient or emission free.



Design

The design of my motor consists of a cardboard box, cardboard, styrofoam, styrofoam cups, toothpicks, gears, and an air compressor. The styrofoam acts as the crankshaft, which is located inside the motor. The styrofoam cups are used as the rotor placed on top of the crankshaft. The cardboard box is the main structure of the motor. Toothpicks provide a sturdy structure to the styrofoam. The gears allow the motor to generate more torque. Finally, the air compressor is the power source of the motor.


Credits

Pneumatic motor

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumatic_motor

Project | Compressed Air Vehicle (CAV)

@Username - http://www.mechengg.net/2015/01/project-compressed-air-vehicle-cav.html

EngineAir

http://www.engineair.com.au/

Green Guru: Do Electric Cars Really Reduce Pollution?


@audubonsociety - http://www.audubon.org/magazine/september-october-2011/green-guru-do-electric-cars-really

Main Points

  • RPM
  • Fixed Gearbox
  • Belt
  • Carbon Emission
  • Rotor

The motor rpm is 120 and the rpm to the wheels are 30. The fixed gear gearbox is set to increase torque and decrease speed. The belt operates an emergency starting lever if the motor stops. Carbon monoxide is one of the most dangerous gasses in the world. This motor uses air and generates no carbon emission. The rotor is the one device that makes the motor work. Without it, it would not be able to run.

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Hydroelectric Generator

What is a Hydroelectric Generator?

A Hydroelectric Generator is a generator that generates electricity through water power. With a water source, it is an efficient way to generate electricity. It is also a pollution-free method of generating clean and reusable energy. This generator generated up to thirteen volts.

How does the Hydroelectric Generator work?

A hydroelectric generator uses a dispenser as it's base. It uses water to push a propeller which is attached to 4 magnets. This is a vital piece of generating electricity. A fixed platform holding 4 pieces of insulated copper wire is located parallel to the magnets. As the magnets rotate parallel to the copper wire, electricity is being generated. The water used to push the propeller is then dispensed and reused.

5 main points

  • Propeller
  • Power source
  • Dispenser
  • Voltage
  • Magnets and Copper Wire


The propeller is made from a light metal sheet that is shaped like half a cup. The design allows it to easily absorb and use the energy from the power source. The power source of the generator is water. The water is the object that moves the propellers. The dispenser is the base of the generator. It holds all the pieces together and also allows water to be dispensed and reused. The voltage is measured through a voltage meter. This generator generates up to 13 volts. The magnets and copper wire are the main components that generate electricity. The magnets are placed in a north, south alternating pattern. This allows energy to be generated

Solar Ovens

Report

Research


A solar oven is a oven that uses the sun to cook food. A solar oven can be made out of many materials such as cardboard or aluminum. When building a solar oven it is best to use materials that will heat up faster or attract the sun’s UV rays. Its proven that darker colors attract more heat. Cardboard is an example of a material that cools down. When trying to collect materials for you solar oven just imagine a hot day and you are sitting under the material, if you would jump up due to the heat, then that would be the right material to use. The best material would be aluminum.


Design


The design of my prototype will be based on the size of a box. It will made of aluminum / steel and replacement glass. The replacement glass is said to keep the heat inside. Many sources say that it attracts the heat that the sun gives off. The glass will be made as a small door so that it is easier to take out the pastries from the solar oven.


Results


The results for my solar oven is that it makes chocolate chip cookies crisp on the exterior but it is raw on the inside. This had happened on the first two experiment, but on the last experiment the cookie had fully cooked. The problem with my prototype is that my solar powered oven heats up too fast which makes the cookies raw on the inside. My solution to that problem is to put a thermometer inside the oven to check it, so it has the right amount of degrees.


Credits


www.cookies​-in-motion.com/cookie-problems.html Cookies in Motion August 20, 2008


Lynne Troubleshooting Your Cookie Problems Good Housekeeping March 17, 2015

www.goodhousekeeping.com/food-recipes/dessert/a31654/solve-cookie-problems

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The sun's UV rays can cook

The sun is a great resources that helps us everyday. With the sun we can cook our foods without using electricity or gas. A solar oven uses the suns UV rays to cook food. The sun's UV rays turn into heat once it is inside the oven.

What is Solar Radiation?

Solar radiation is energy emitted from the sun, mostly electromagnetic energy. Electromagnetic energy is energy that can be reflected or emitted from objects through electrical or magnetic waves traveling through space. Earth is the only planet in the solar system, which receives a good amount of solar energy that makes life sustainable on it.

What uses Solar Radiation?

Solar Radiation has many uses plants use the sun’s radiation for the process of photosynthesis to create food. Solar panels also use the radiation from the sun to create energy that is sustainable. Solar power is arguably the cleanest, most reliable form of renewable energy available. When the sunlight hits the solar panel it collects the sunlight's particles (photons). Then the panel converts the photons into electrons of direct current electricity.
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Solar Panels

Who invented the solar cell?

The first Photovoltaic cell was designed by Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin in the mid-'50s in Murray Hill. Gerald Pearson was a physicist, Calvin Fuller was a physical chemist, and Daryl Chapin worked in Bell Labs colleagues with both Calvin and Daryl.

What is the Photovoltiac Cell

Photovoltaic cells are what makes the solar panel work. Photovoltaic cells convert light from the sun into a flow of electrons. The flow of electrons generates electricity which gives power to the things connected to the solar panel. This process works like photons of light leaving the electron and forming a better state of energy.

Interesting Facts about the Composition of the Sun

What is the Sun?

The sun is a star which is the center of the solar system. It is a sphere of hot plasma. The sun is the most important energy source for Earth.

What is the structure of the Sun?

The sun is made up of different percentages of these following elements hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, iron, silicon, magnesium, and sulfur. Most of the sun’s gas is made up of hydrogen and helium. About 70 percent of the sun is made up of the element hydrogen and the other 28 percent of the sun is made of helium. Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 1.5 percent of the sun. The last part of the sun which is 0.5 percent is made up of small amounts of neon, silicon, iron, sulfur, and magnesium.
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Cultural Aspects of the Sun

The importance of the sun to Africans

The Africans would worship Liza and Mahu because Liza is the god of sun, sky, and power. And Moahu is the goddess of the earth, moon, and fertility. Mahu and Liza are twins so they work together to create objects of earth. For example, they would create other gods to rule other earth qualities.
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The importance of the sun to Greeks

The sun god that the Greeks worship is Apollo. He is also the god of music, knowledge, archery, plague, light, and art. He is the sun to the god of lightning, Zeus, and the goddess, Leto. He is mainly known as the healer and intermediary between humans and gods. greeks would worship him because they knew that he had a lot of power.
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The importance of the sun to Egyptians

The god that the Egyptians would worship is the god of the sun Ra. Ra is mainly known as one of the main deities of the Egyptians. He is believed to head to the underworld every time the sun would set and would be revived every time the sun would rise. he was not created by someone but he created himself and he is the creator of everything else. Therefore. he was crowned king by the Egyptian due to the power that he had.
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The importance of the sun to Mayans

The god of the sun that the Mayans would worship is the god Kinich Ahau. The Mayans would use the sun for a lot of things for example they would use it to tell the time, day, and when an event would come to happen. A way that they would tell time is that they would build temples and when the sun is in a certain position they would celebrate with a certain type of party.
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The importance of the sun to the Aztecs

To the Aztecs they have five different Sun Gods. The Five different suns are Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Tlaloc, Chalchiuhtlicue, and lastly Tecciztecatl and Nanauatl both sacrificed themselves to be the final sun. The two gods Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl are related to each other because they are brothers. Also, Tlaloc and Chalchiuhtlicue are related to each other because they are brother and sister. Lastly, the last two gods of the same sun, Tecciztecatl and Nanauatl are connected to each other because they were both the gods to the same sun.
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The Sun in Relationship with the Solar System

Why do the planets orbit the sun

The center of the solar system contains a yellow dwarf star called the sun. It generates a gravitational force which causes the planets to orbit around it. The planets farther away from the sun receives a weaker gravitational force from the sun. The planet's temperature varies by the distance between the planet and the sun. Each planet in the solar system has a different temperature and accepts a different amount of gravitational force from the sun.

The sun's relationship to Earth

The Sun's relation to Earth causes the changes of seasons, ocean currents, radiation belts, and aurorae. Without the sun, there would be no life on Earth on the solar system. As Earth orbits the Sun, the distance between Earth and the Sun changes and changes the seasons of the year. It takes 365.25 days for Earth to orbit the Sun due to the distance between the sun and Earth. The distance between Earth and the Sun gives Earth the perfect temperature for water to exist and for life to begin.

Magnetic Fields

The sun's magnetic field affects most planets in the solar system. The magnetic field can create thunderstorms on the planets. If the sun's magnetic polarity changes, there will be changes that will ripple across the solar system. They can cause climate changes on the planets of the solar system. Cloudiness of Earth is affected by the magnetic fields of the sun.

Solar Flares

Solar Flares generate particle which are dangerous to living organisms. Solar flares happen due to magnetic energy being released. Geomagnetic storms affect human activity the most. They can damage satellites and are dangerous to astronauts in space. It is unknown whether a large geomagnetic storm can cause a catastrophe on Earth or have no effect at all.

Why do Uranus and Venus rotate clockwise

Planets Venus and Uranus travel in the opposite direction of the other 6 planets. They rotate in clockwise, while the other 6 planets rotate counter-clockwise. There are three theories why. The first theory is that Venus and Uranus are upside down. The second theory is that the gravitational force of the sun on the dense atmosphere of the planets cause them to rotate in the opposite direction. The last theory is that during the formation of the planets, asteroids or meteorites hit the planets and caused it to change direction. The sun's gravitational field regulates the distance between the planets and the sun.
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MMS February Solar Data Summary

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