The Big Bang Theory

A Theory that is "Bang On" Awesome!

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Introduction by user581281669
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INTRODUCTION TO THE BIG BANG

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Introduction To The Big Bang by user581281669
The Big Bang is a cosmological model that describes the universe's early development (Wiki Contributors). The model has been described as the most widely accepted theory that has been conceived for the scientific origin of everything in the universe. To this day, no other model can predict as much (Journey Through the Galaxy).

OK, SO HOW DOES IT WORK?

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Before The Big Bang?

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Before the Big Bang? by user581281669
"What happened before the Big Bang?" is a common question that people usually want to ask. Usually, the birth of our universe with the Big Bang is referred by the phrase "in the beginning". All the contents, matter and radiation of the universe was, in the beginning, compressed into a small point. In fact, the point was so minuscule that it was immeasurably small or "infinitesimal". The laws of physics that we know and use today don't apply to this phenomenon. No data before could not have survived. For this reason, the Big Bang has been assumed to be start of EVERYTHING as anything before the event has remained unknown (Journey Through the Galaxy).

Summary Of The Big Bang Theory

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Summary of The Big Bang Theory by user581281669
The Big Bang model suggests around 14 billion years ago, (which is believed to be the age of the universe) a giant blast allowed all the energy, matter, and even space and time to come to life from some unknown, ancient type of energy. After the Big Bang, the universe expanded from its infinitesimal size to astronomical scope at an unbelievable speed, faster than the speed of light (National Geographic)!


Scientists are unsure as to exactly how the universe grew after the Big Bang event. Many people believe that as matter cooled and time passed, diverse kinds of atoms began to form. Galaxies and universes that we know today began to form as these atoms eventually condensed (National Geographic). In addition, the cause of the cataclysm itself is still a realm of mystery.

The Big Bang Theory Timeline

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The Big Bang Theory Timeline by user581281669
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In Detail Explanation of the Big Bang Timeline

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In Detail Explanation of the Big Bang by user581281669

10-43 seconds - The universe's existence began with the Big Bang, which generated all the energy, matter that the universe has as well as space and time. During this moment, the universe was a hot, extremely dense fireball.


10-35 to 10-33 seconds - A large expansion of space that was filled with the energy was caused by a process called "inflation". This period of inflation was halted when this energy was transformed into energy that we know today as well as matter.


10-6 seconds - After one millionth of a second after the Big Bang occurred, or after the inflation period, the universe continued to expand but not as quickly as before. The expansion caused the universe to cool down and become less dense. The basic forces of nature appeared, including the force of gravity, the weak and electromagnetic force, as well as the strong force that bounds nuclei of atoms together. Overall, the universe started to take shape.


1 second - At this moment, the universe was composed of various particles that smashed together to form neutrons and protons. Some of these fundamental particles are energy are called electrons, photons, quarks, neutrinos and so on.


3 seconds - Neutrons and protons formed nuclei of simple elements by coming together. Some of these elements include lithium, helium and hydrogen. This was the beginning of the formation of basic and fundamental elements.


10,000 years (The Radiation Era) - The radiation era was the first ever significant era in the universe's history, in which most of the energy was in the form of radiation (various wavelengths of light such as radio waves, UV rays and X rays). They were remnants of the hot dense state of the universe. Diluted and stretched to this day, they create the faint glow of microwaves that covers the entire universe.


300,000 years (Domination of Matter) - At this point, the balance between the energy in radiation and energy in matter was equal; however, as the universe continues to expand, the waves of light were diluted to lower energy levels, while the matter continued to travel largely unfazed. During this time, the neutral atoms were formed as electrons linked with helium and hydrogen nuclei. A clear picture of how the matter was distributed at this time was given by the microwave background radiation that hailed from this moment of time. In addition, the temperature dropped by 2,700 degrees Celsius. At this point, protons and atomic nuclei began to imprison electrons. The first atoms were formed.


300 million years (the Birth of Galaxies and Stars) - The gravity of the universe intensified irregularities that were slight in the primitive gas. Despite the fact the universe continued to expand, gas pockets became more dense. Because of this, stars ignited within these gas pockets. Groups of stars were able to become the first galaxies. During this moment, 12 - 15 billion years still stand before this instant of time and present time (Wiki Contributors).

ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE BIG BANG THEORY

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Origin and History of the Big Bang Theory by user581281669

The Big Bang model originated from observations of other galaxies and their constant motion of moving away from our own galaxy at great velocities as if propelled by an ancient force. Georges Lemaître was a Belgian priest who first proposed the Big Bang Theory in the 1920s. A picture of him is shown on the left. This was when he suggested that the entire universe started out from a single atom (National Geographic).

EVIDENCE SUPPORTING THE BIG BANG THEORY

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Evidence Supporting the Big Bang Theory by user581281669
Why is the Big Bang model the leading theory that most astrophysicist believe explains the beginning of everything? All analysis and information collected hitherto support Georges Lemaître's cosmological model. There are mainly four pieces of evidence that are usually used:

Evidence 1: Expansion Of The Universe

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Evidence 1: Expansion of the Universe by user581281669
Like earlier discussed, the universe, like an inflating balloon, is expanding along with the galaxies within it. The discovery of the universe's expansion was by Edwin Hubble in 1929 who first proposed that everything in the entire universe was and still is moving away. This leads to the assumption the universe was once infinitesimally small, that is if the universe was indeed smaller in the past.


Individuals may have opinionated why they think the universe is not becoming larger but could have been becoming smaller before and we just didn't know about it. The only answer is that there is no gadget that can achieve this change on a universal scale (Journey Through the Galaxy).

Evidence 2: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB)

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Evidence 2: Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) by user581281669
This second piece of evidence was founded by Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias from Bell Labs in 1965. While working with a microwave receiver, they picked up noise from every single direction they pointed the machine. The source of the noise was coming from the sky at what has seemed to be the same frequency (Journey Through the Galaxy).


Predicted by the Big Bang Theory, CMB is what's left over from when the universe when it was only 300,000 years old. As the young universe's matter became compressed, it became hot. This is due to the movement of the particles. The faster they move, the more energy they produce as well as the amount of heat formed. Atoms could not form before the universe was 300,000 years old as it was too hot. Therefore, photons ( particles of light) were immobile, as they kept reacting with electrons (Journey Through the Galaxy).


As the universe reached the age of 300,000 years old, it cooled down. Electrons were then bound to nuclei and atoms could form. As this occurred, photons were free to move. The Cosmic Microwave Background radiation was the "first light", making it a significant sign of the Big Bang's existence (Journey Through the Galaxy).

Evidence 3: Large Amounts Of Different Elements Of The Universe

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Evidence 3: Large Amounts Of Different Elements Of the Universe by user581281669
This cosmological model theorized particular amounts of helium, hydrogen and other various elements should have been made due to the Big Bang. Observations have displayed similar amounts of elements that have been predicted (Journey Through the Galaxy).

Evidence 4: Evolution Of The Universe

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Evidence 4: Evolution Of The Universe by user581281669
The Big Bang model is the only theory of the origin of life that serves as a framework of the future evolution of the universe that we can observe to this day (Journey Through the Galaxy).

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