They are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. An example is Lithium.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Rare Earth Metals are not found freely in nature. They are present in the Earth's crust but not in their basic form. They can be distributed in rock structure. They have two electrons in their outer shell. They also have high boiling points, high melting points, and low density. The example below is Beryllium.
Halogens are the only element group that includes elements that belong to all three classical states of matter. They are extremely reactive, and are found as diatomic molecules. An example is fluorine.
Noble Gases all conduct electricity, fluoresce, are odorless and colorless, and are used in many conditions when a stable element is needed to maintain a safe and constant environment. An example is Xenon.
Metals are generally shiny, malleable, and hard. Metals are also good conductors of electricity. An example is iron.
Metalloids are semi conductors, which means they both insulate and conduct electricity. An example is Arsenic.
Metals are generally shiny, malleable, and hard. Metals are also good conductors of electricity.
- they form coloured compounds.
- they are good conductors of heat and electricity.
- they can be hammered or bent into shape easily.
- they are less reactive than alkali metals such as sodium.
- they have high melting points - but mercury is a liquid at room temperature.
- Similarity in physical properties throughout the series
- Adoption mainly of the +3 oxidation state. Usually found in crystalline compounds)
- They can also have an oxidation state of +2 or +4, though some lanthanides are most stable in the +3 oxidation state.
- Adoption of coordination numbers greater than 6 (usually 8-9) in compounds
- Tendency to decreasing coordination number across the series
- A preference for more electronegative elements (such as O or F) binding
- Very small crystal-field effects
- Little dependence on ligands
- Ionic complexes undergo rapid ligand-exchange
Because of their radioactive and heavy metal characteristics, they are considered toxic elements.
The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or molecule describes the minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron (to infinity) from the atom or molecule in the gaseous state.The IE trend increases as the rows move to the right and increases as you go up the columns. Helium, for example, has a higher energy than Hydrogen.
The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons. The AR decreases as rows move to the left and decrease as the columns move down.
Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself. It increases the same way Ionization Energy. It increases as it goes up the rows and columns.