SCUBA Project

By Owen Seymour

Gas Laws

Boyle's Law: gas pressure has an indirect relation to volume


Charles's Law: gas volume has a direct relation to temperature


Dalton's Law: in a gas mixture, the total pressure is equal to the sum of each individual gas's pressure


Gay-Lussac's Law: gas pressure has a direct relation to temperature


Henry's Law: the amount of dissolved gas in a given liquid has a direct relation to the pressure of the gas

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Horrible Conditions!

The Bends (decompression sickness):

  • While diving deeper into lower depths of the ocean, pressure increases, one effect of this can be an increased amount of nitrogen dissolving into the divers tissue, resulting in the Bends
  • Can be lethal if not treated early
  • Can result in joint pain, fatigue, itching, rashes and lymph swelling as well as a variety of other symptoms
  • Can be treated through high oxygen flow, IV fluids and re-compression
  • Henry's law applies to this because with increased depth, there is increased pressure as well as increased amount of dissolved gas (nitrogen in this case)
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Air Embolisms

  • Occur when a gas enters an artery or vein, blocking it- this can happen while scuba diving if your alveoli rupture, allowing air to flow into your bloodstream
  • An air embolism can be painful, as well as potentially lethal
  • Symptoms include respiratory failure, chest pain, difficulty breathing, heart failure, joint pain, low blood pressure and even blue skin
  • Treatment includes surgery and being put in a pressurized oxygen chamber
  • Boyle's law applies to this because it states that pressure has an indirect relationship with volume, so, as a scuba diver is surfacing, if done too fast the air in the lungs can expand too fast, damaging the alveoli
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Oxygen Toxicity

  • Occurs because pure oxygen can be harmful at high pressures
  • Can result in neurological failure, hypoxemia, retinal failure, and destruction to the endocrine system
  • Symptoms include vomiting, twitching, nausea, convulsions and vertigo
  • No treatment
  • Dalton's law applies to this because the increased pressure results in increased amounts of oxygen which can cause oxygen toxicity
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Defining Dive Safety