Middle Ages in Europe
By: Darby Shepard, Megan Brownrigg, and Darrin Desylva
Agriculture's Contribute to Economy and the Development of Cities and Towns
- Lords cleared forests, drained swamps, and increased agricultural land as it would produce higher taxes and more wealth.
- In order to achieve larger produce, cultivators experimented with new crops and crop rotation.
- The most important crop advancement was beans. They provided people with protein and soil with nitrogen.
- All in all, agricultural technologies improved agricultural productivity.
- New technologies such as watermills, heavy plows, horseshoes, and horse collars were beneficial to production.
The Estate System
- Divided into 3 main estates (clergy, peasants, nobles/knights)
- Caused major disagreement between the clergy/nobles and the peasants.
- Clergy were the most educated.
- Nobles and knights were the soldiers/protecters that were rewarded for their devotion.
- Peasants were the lowest, which did all the work includes growing food.
- Guilds protected and regulated production and sale of goods,established standards of quality, and regulated the entry of new workers, which in turn effected the economy.
- The guilds had a lot of control over the economy.
- Most guilds admitted women into the ranks, so women worked alongside men in large towns and cities.
- The increasing prominence of women shows an effect that guilds had on the society.