Middle Ages in Europe

By: Darby Shepard, Megan Brownrigg, and Darrin Desylva

Agriculture's Contribute to Economy and the Development of Cities and Towns

  • Lords cleared forests, drained swamps, and increased agricultural land as it would produce higher taxes and more wealth.
  • In order to achieve larger produce, cultivators experimented with new crops and crop rotation.
  • The most important crop advancement was beans. They provided people with protein and soil with nitrogen.
  • All in all, agricultural technologies improved agricultural productivity.
  • New technologies such as watermills, heavy plows, horseshoes, and horse collars were beneficial to production.

The Estate System

  • Divided into 3 main estates (clergy, peasants, nobles/knights)
  • Caused major disagreement between the clergy/nobles and the peasants.
  • Clergy were the most educated.
  • Nobles and knights were the soldiers/protecters that were rewarded for their devotion.
  • Peasants were the lowest, which did all the work includes growing food.


  • Guilds protected and regulated production and sale of goods,established standards of quality, and regulated the entry of new workers, which in turn effected the economy.
  • The guilds had a lot of control over the economy.
  • Most guilds admitted women into the ranks, so women worked alongside men in large towns and cities.
  • The increasing prominence of women shows an effect that guilds had on the society.