Before new advancements in medicines times were very rough

In the first half of the 19th century the working class lived in cramped neighborhoods, they were dirty and full of diseases. Homes didn't have sewage or running water which means people were constantly dirty also, when they needed to go to the bathroom they had to go in buckets and they dumped them when they got full. You could imagine how horrible that would have been and how dirty it was.Doctors were very uneducated at this time and would use leeches and toxic potions to try to cue their patients which of course couldn't end well. A common remidy they went to was making them puke or laxatives which made them dehydrated and cause early dealth. The life expectancy was around 45 years in England, anyone who lived past that was lucky.
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There was a huge out break of rabies and anthrax! It killed thousands and made many sick. At this time you were luck if you didn't get passed on or have someone in your living space with rabies. Louis pasteur invented vaccinations to help prevent these terrible diseases. 30 million died in the 1800's due to tubercolois, this was contageous and many got it from drinking unclean water. Tubercolois was a respiratory disease that after 500 long years they finally found a cure.
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In 1914 they realized the out break of malaria and yellow fever were spread by mosquitoes and learned to stay away from them as much as possible. Hospital care improved greatly, they used to use dirty instruments and kept everyone in dank disease filled rooms. Now they cleaned beds as well as rooms and used cleaner instuments. Many bathed more often and changed cloths when they had the chance to get clean when they heard about germs and infections from being dirty.
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In the mid to late 1800s medicine and doctors became more educated. They learned nutrition and sanitation had a lot to do with keeping healthy. In 1840 anesthesia was invented. This improved the quality of medicine greatly. Many survived harsh conditions and severe injuries because of this invention. It completely blocked out all the pain, women having childen now could survive labor.