Universal Negro Improvement Association
United States,organization founded by Marcus Garvey, dedicated to racial pride, economic self-sufficiency, and the formation of an independent black nation in Africa. Though Garvey had founded the UNIA in Jamaica in 1914.
Although the UNIA did not complete its projects, it became a model for nationalist organizations and independence movements throughout the Black World. Marcus Garvey is a permanent symbol of the African right to self-determination. Many black leaders and activists, including Kwame Nkrumah and Malcolm X, have attested to Garvey's influence upon their political thought and organization.