Modern Era

Empires in Collision

Taiping Uprising

  • It happened from 1850-1864
  • The Uprising was in China
  • The leading figure was Hong Xiuquan (younger brother of Jesus)
  • The Uprising was a massive rebellion (China's Civil War)
  • The Taiping rebellion happened because the leader Honk Xiuquan believed he received visions that he was picked but God to establish a heavenly kingdom on Earth

Opium Wars


  • In 1838 - 1842 was the first Opium War in China. Then in 1856 - 1858 the second Opium War occurred.
  • Involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's sovereignty.
  • The wars weakened the Qing dynasty and reduced China's separation from the rest of the world

Unequal Treaties

The Unequal Treaties was series of treaties that was signed with the Western power by the Qing Dynasty China and late Tokugawa Japan after suffering military defeat by the foreign powers or when there was a threat of military action by those powers.

Self-Strengthening Movement

Is an overall program for China's modernization was inhibited by the fears of conservation leaders that urban, industrial, or commercial development would erode the power and privileges of the landlord class.


  • 1861-1893 was the period of institution reforms initiated in China.

Boxer Uprising


  • The Boxer Rebellion was 1899-1901

When the Self-Strengthening Movement failed the Boxer Uprising (The Anti-Foreign Movement) erupted in northern China. They are called Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists. The Boxers killed numerous Europeans and Chinese Christians.

Commissioner Lin

  • Born in 1785, Lin Zexu was selected in 1838 by the Chinese Empire to enforce the policy.
  • His father was a poor but scholarly and never achieved an official position.
  • Lin's actions propelled the country into a century of humiliating subservience to an industrializing Europe and forced growing numbers of Chinese to question their vaunted civilization.

Chinese Revolution of 1911

In the 19th Century The Qing Empire faced a number of challenges. Two great Western powers led by Great Britain got control over Honk Kong which led to the Treaty Ports. After they lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-1895, imperial China was forced to relinquish control of their territory. Then the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) established Japanese claims to the Northeast and further weakened the Qing ruler.

The Sick Man of Europe

Name for the Ottoman Empire-it had weakened economically, technologically, and militarily.


  • Name was given to a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty or impoverishment.
  • First used in the Mid-19th Century for the Ottoman Empire

Tanzimat

  • An education based on western math and science, postal service, telegraphs, railroads, constitution, treaty with the British that improved trade by removed taxes.

Young Ottomans

  • Is a secret society established in 1865 by a group of Ottoman Turkish intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire, which they believed did not go far enough.
  • Young Ottomans were frequently in disagreement ideologically, they all agreed that the new constitutional government should continue to be somewhat rooted in Islam to emphasize "the continuing and essential validity of Islam as the basis of Ottoman political culture.

Sultan Abd al-Hamid II

  • Born at the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul (Constantinople), the capital of the Ottoman Empire, on 21 September 1842.
  • Was the 34th Sultan to the Ottoman Empire and the last Sultan to exert effective autocratic control over the fracturing state.
  • He promulgated the first Ottoman constitution of 1876 on 23 December 1876, primarily to ward off foreign intervention.

Young Turks

The Young Turks was a political reform movement in the early 20th century, favoring replacement of the absolute monarchy of the Ottoman Empire with a constitutional monarchy. Their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. Young Turks helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, ushering in an era of multi-party democracy for the first time in the country's history.

Informal Empires

Describe the spheres of influence which an empire may develop that translate into a degree of influence over a region or country, which is not a formal colony in the empire, as a result of the extension of commercial, strategic or military interests of the empire

Meiji Restoration

The Emperors before Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities and consolidated the political system under the Emperor of Japan.


  • Know as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Reform, or Renewal, was a chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Russo-Japanese War

  • 1904-1905 was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
  • Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for their navy and for maritime trade.
Russian suffered numerous defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war; at first, to await the outcomes of certain naval battles, and later to preserve the dignity of Russia by averting a "humiliating peace."