Cloning

Gentics

Key people

There was many key people in the process of cloning these are just a few. Hans Spermann proposed to replace an egg cell with nucleus of another cell, and grow an embryo from the egg. Robert Briggs, and Thomas king collected the nucleus from a frog cell with pipette, and replaced it with the nucleus that was taken away from a cell of a frog embryo. As I told you it did not work right away sadly this experiment was not successful this experiment happened in 1952. In 1970 Jhon B. Gordan successfully cloned a frog . In 1981 Peter Hope, and Karli Illmense cloned a mouse by taking the nucleus not from, and adult mouse, but instead a mouse embryo. These are just a few people who did or tried to do the process of cloning. Not all of these people were successful in doing the process of cloning.

History

What is cloning? Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies every single bit of their DNA is identical. Cloning started in the 1960's. At first the process of cloning was not very successful there were many fails before it became successful. The first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell is known as Dolly the Sheep.

First experiments

As I told you before Dolly the sheep was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult cell. She was cloned in an institute that was named Roslin located in Midlothian Scotland. She was born July 5, 1996, but her birth was not announced until February 22,1997. Like any other organism Dolly the Sheep died when she was six years old on February 14, 2003.

Types

There are three types of cloning, Gene cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located, and copied out of DNA extracted from an organism all of its genes are extracted at the same time this DNA contains many different genes. Reproductive cloning is when you create an animal that is genetically identical to a donor animal through somatic cell nuclear transfer. Therapeutic cloning is designed as therapy for disease.

Benefits and Risks

There is very many benefits that can happen if we start doing cloning. They say it could be used to reverse heart attacks. They also say cloning can make plants stronger. It could also be used to protect endangered species. You can help produce more food, and some even say it helps to reverse the aging process , and replace or repair damaged organs, and tissues. This is just a few list of the benefits cloning can do. Even though cloning has many benefits there is also many risks. The early cloning could take humans into a realm of self engineering. Even a disease can be made, and spread from cloning. As I told you before cloning is not always successful many can even die during the process of cloning.
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Who? What? Why? How?

Who? The government made the rules for cloning ,and came up with the idea of cloning.What? A replicate is a fragment of DNA placed in an organism. The state of Iowa forbids any person to preform, or attempt to preform human cloning, or participate in such an attempts. The city of Rhode Island banned the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer for the purpose of initiating a human pregnancy. Why? The scientist think it might help make the aging process slower, and prevent heart attacks. I am a medical ethics professor, and I think that there is much more benefits that come from cloning than risks. Many people die from heart attacks every year. Cloning might be able to stop, or at least reduce the possibility of one happening. How? Cloning happens by removing a skin cell from animal they want to clone. Then transfer DNA of donors cell into an egg cell that contains its own DNA, or in other words from a foreign DNA into the genetic material of a carrier.