Substance Use Disorder
Opioids, Hallucinogens and PCP, Cannabis, & Inhalants
What is a subtance use disorder?
Opioids are medications that relieve pain. They reduce the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain and affect those brain areas controlling emotion, which decreases the effects of a painful stimulus (NIH, 2015). Some common types of medications are hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, codeine, and related drugs.
If you are taking any of these medications please seek for additional information at:
Hallucinogens and PCP
What are Hallucinogens?
- drugs that distort the user’s perception of reality
- drugs that can cause hallucinations either auditory or visual
- drugs that can cause intense emotional mood swings or behavioral changes in the user
- drugs that disrupt the production of serotonin and cause distinct changes in the way that the brain processes sensory or emotions
There are many different types of hallucinogens, and one of them being PCP. PCP is known on the street as angel dust, wet, or illy (Hallucinogens, 2013). PCP is a complex mixture of chemicals that are synthesized to create a hallucinogenic colloquially. PCP can have a wide vary or effects. Some effects are bloodshot eyes, loss of balance, staggering, aggressive behavior, delusions, paranoia, and hallucinations (Hallucinogens, 2013). PCP is a yellow oily substance that in pure form is typically dissolved in petroleum or another substance. When mixed with hydrogen chloride gas, PCP will turn into a white or tan colored crystalline powder known as PCP hydrochloride (Hallucinogens, 2013). Below is a picture of what PCP looks like.
Inhalant use is the intentional breathing of gas or vapors with the purpose of reaching a high. Inhalants are legal, everyday products which have a useful purpose, but can be misused. Some of these products are gas, glue, air freshener, paint, felt tip markers, and cooking spray (NIPC, 2015). Most of all the abused products produce effects similar to anesthetics, which slow down the body's function. Depending on the level of dosage, the user can experience slight stimulation, feeling of less inhibition or loss of consciousness (NIPC, 2015).
For more information on inhalants please visit the link below
Biological Factors: The brain seems to have its own pleasure path way that affects the experience of reward (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014). The pathway then begins in the ventral tegmental area then moves through an area of the limbic system and then on the to the frontal cortex. They say that some drugs directly increase the availability of dopamine in the pathway which gives that person their desired "high" (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014).
Psychological Factors: This theory suggest that people will learn substance use behaviors through other people such as parents, guardians, friends, or loved ones (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014). For example; if smoking cannabis is acceptable in the household where they grew up at, they are more likely to view cannabis use as a part of daily life.
Sociocultural Factors: It says that people that are under chronic stress will turn to opioids because it will give them the "high" they want so they can be calm (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2014). This theory proves that substance use is higher in poverty, women in abusive relationships, and teenagers whose parents are constantly fighting or violent.
Common Myths & Mispreceptions
There are many myths and misperceptions about people that use substances. But don't lose hope, because there are ways to overcome those myths. There are some stereotypes of people that are addicted to drugs. Some of these stereotypes are that the have legal problems and a criminal history. Also, that they steal from family and friends, wears dirty unkempt clothing and doesn’t invest much time into personal hygiene. Another common misperceptions is that they move from low paid job to low paid job or are more likely unemployable. They are also labeled as sad people who have nothing good in their life as well as being called junkies have no ambition in life (DARA, 2016). Another common myth is that drug addiction is more serious than alcohol addiction (DARA, 2016). When you hear all these misperceptions it may make you feel hopeless but most of these are false. For example; alcohol is more harmful than any other drug. It is just easier for people to live behind the lies than come out into the truth.
If you ever have any questions or concerns this hotline is always available: 1-888-761-7135
How can I get help?
What to look for in a therpist!
When you are searching for a therapist to help you with treatment, make sure they meet all the requirements and have all the credentials that the state requires. Below is a list of requirements that the State of Michigan has to become a therapist.
- Three years or 2,000 hours of supervised experience in AD counseling.
- 180 hours of education in ICRC/AODA related courses
- Have a minimum of 300 hours of supervision
- 6 hours of counseling ethics.
- Sign the Counselor Code of Ethical Standards.
- Pass the ICRC/AADC (Advanced) Counselor written examination.
For more information on making sure you chose the right therapist please visit the website below
DARA. (2016). Common Myths about Drug Addiction. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/common-myths-about-drug-addiction/
Hallucinogens. (2013, May). PCP. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from http://hallucinogens.com/pcp/
NIH. (2015, November). How do opioids affect the brain and body? Retrieved February 15, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/opioids/how-do-opioids-affect-brain-body
NIH. (2015, September). Marijuana. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
NIPC. (2015). About Inhalant Abuse - NIPC National Inhalant Prevention Coalition. Retrieved February 15, 2016, from http://www.inhalants.org/about.htm
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2014). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). NewYork: McGraw-Hill.