The Biographies of Scientists


Scientists classify organisms and assign each organism a universally accepted name.


Aristotle was born in Stageria, Chalcidice 384 B.C. His father was a physician of King Amyntas of Macedon. He was inspired by his fathers scientific work, but he did not show interest in medicine. He moved to Athens and joined Plato Academy for his education and spent 20 years there. After Plato died, he moved to Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. Philip II of Macedon invited Aristotle to tutor his son Alexander, or, Alexander the great. He returned to Athens and established his own school, Lyceum, in 335 B.C. For 12 years, he conducted courses at his school. He married Pythias niece of Hermias and had a baby with her. His wife died and he remarried. He had a son named Nicomachus.

Scientific Work

Aristotle added an element called the first element. This element was later called quintessence or aether. It did not exist on Earth but in Heaven. The four earthly elements moved in straight lines while the ‘first element’ followed a perfect path, or circle explaining why heavenly bodies followed circular paths around earth. The element stayed forever pure. The sun, moon, planets and stars are perfect because they contain this element

Aristotle's Legacy

Aristotle was a philosopher with great knowledge, but had no one to pass on his knowledge. His work continues to play a big part in modern studies.

Carolus Linnaeus

Carolus was born May 23, 1707 in a small village in Southern Sweden. His father was Nils Ingemarsson, an amateur botanist. He picked up his father's love for plants and botany. He began growing his own plants in his family’s garden in the search of finding new plants. He started school at the age of 10, but he didn't excel. Then he continued to work on his own botanical studies. His teachers told him he was not bright enough for a university. They ignored his skills for botany and said it wasn't a real “proper subject." One of his school teachers, Johan Rothman, a medical doctor, noticed his talents. He informed his father that Carl should look into school for medicine. Carl moved in with the Rothman family and studied anatomy, physiology, and botany. By the age of 21, he was ready for a university and enrolled in Lund University. He switched to Uppsala University because Rothan told him that the botany classes were better. At age 23 he dropped out of the classes and became a lecturer at the University.

Scientific Work

Linnaeus classified nature into a hierarchy. There were three groups called kingdoms, which names every part of nature; animals, plants, and minerals. These kingdoms were divided into classes which were divided into orders, genera, then species. We still use this today but with changes. Now kingdom contains phyla, followed by class, order, family, genus, and species.

Carolus' s Philosophy

Carolus Linnaeus' ideas of classification influenced generations of biologists during and after his lifetime.

Lynn Margulis

Lynn was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1938. In 1957 she earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago. She married the famous astronomer, Carl Sagan. They divorced in 1964. She then got a master's degree in zoology and genetics from the University of Wisconsin in 1960. She earned a Ph. D. in genetics from the University of California, Berekley in 1965.

Scientific Work

Lynn formulated the symbiotic theory of evolution. This deals with the interconnection of prokaryotic and cukaryotic cells, explaining the emergence of new species by a mechanism known as “symbiogenesis”.

Lynn's Legacy

Lynn Margulis died of a hemorrhagic stroke on November 22, 2011. She was 73 years old.